CVE-111 U.S.S. Vella Gulf - History

CVE-111 U.S.S. Vella Gulf - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Vella Gulf

(CVE-111: dp. 11,373; 1. 657'1"; b. 75'; ew. 104'; dr. 32'; s. 19 k.; cpl. 1,066; a. 2 5", 36 40mm., 2420mm., act 34; cl. Commencement Bay)

Vella Gulf (CVE-111) was laid down as Totem Bay on 7 February 1944 at Tacoma, Wash., by the ToddPacific Shipyards, Inc.; renamed Vella Gulf on 26 April 1944; launched on 19 October 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Donald F. Smith; and commissioned on 9 April 1945, Capt. Robert W. Morse in command.

Following initial local operations in Puget Sound, Vella Gulf sailed for San Diego and arrived there on 4 May to pick up the initial increment of her assigned Marine air group. After embarking them at the naval

air station, the escort aircraft carrier conducted shakedown off the southern California coast and embarked the remainder of her group during this period. At the completion of a post-shakedown availability, she departed the west coast on 17 June, bound for Hawaii. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 25 June and conducted 11 days of intensive training operations

Vella Gulf departed Pearl Harbor on 9 July, stopped at Eniwetok in the Marshalls on the 16th to refuel; and proceeded on to Guam where she arrived four days later. On the 23d, she sailed for the Marianas to conduct air strikes against Rota and Pagan Islands. The next day, she launched 24 sorties against Pagan Island with her FG-1D Corsairs, Hellcat photographic aircraft, and TBM 3E Avenger bombers. Three days later the escort carrier launched 21 sorties against Rota, with a dozen Corsairs, eight Avengers and one Hellcat taking part. Light antiaircraft fire from Japanese guns peppered the skies but failed to reach the American planes. Two planes returned from the mission having conducted their attacks from such a low altitude that shrapnel from their own bomb explosions slightly damaged their tail surfaces.

The day after the Rota strike, the ship flew off her planes to Saipan and then returned to Apra Harbor, Guam, on 2 August, for a three-day breather before heading for Okinawa on the 6th. She arrived at Buckner Bay four days later. Her one night spent in the anchorage there was a memorable one since, during the evening, word arrived that surrender negotiations with the Japanese were in progress and prompted many ships and shore-based units to set off pyrotechnics.

Vella Gulf arrived back at Guam on 15 August in time to receive the welcome news that Japan had capitulated. Vella Gulf participated in the initial occupation operations of the Japanese home islands. She provided food and fuel to other Fleet units off the coast and, in late August, alternated with Gilbert Island$ (CVE-107) in furnishing air cover for a replenishment group. The escort carrier then sailed for Tokyo Bay and arrived there on 10 September.

Departing Japanese waters on 21 September, Vella Gulf embarked 650 men at Okinawa for passage back to the west coast of the United States. After a brief stop at Pearl Harbor, she arrived at San Francisco Calif., on 14 October. She subsequently operated in the Puget Sound area as training ship for escort carrier personnel until late March 1946, when she sailed for the coast of southern California and arrived at San Diego on 27 March. However, her stay there was brief,

for she soon got underway again, touched at Port Angeles, and pushed on to Tacoma, Wash., where she began inactivation on the last day of the month Moved to Seattle on 7 April, the ship was placed in inactive status, out of commission, on 9 August 1946.

Placed in reserve at Tacoma, the vessel remained there into the 1960's. Reclassified as a helicopter carrier (CVHE) on 12 June 1955, Vella Gulf was later transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service and she was again reclassified-this time to T-AKt-11. However, she never returned to active service. Struck from the Navy list on 1 June 1960, she was reinstated on 1 November of the same year. Struck for the second time on 1 December 1970, the erstwhile escort carrier was sold to the American Ship Dismantlers, Inc., of Portland, Oreg., on 22 October 1971 and scrapped.

Vella Gulf received one battle star for her World War II service.


USS Vella Gulf (CVE-111)

USS Vella Gulf (CVE-111) là một tàu sân bay hộ tống lớp Commencement Bay được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ chế tạo trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. Nó là chiếc tàu chiến đầu tiên của Hải quân Mỹ được đặt cái tên này, theo tên vịnh Vella tại quần đảo Solomon, nơi diễn ra trận hải chiến vịnh Vella năm 1943. Hoàn tất khi Thế Chiến II ở vào giai đoạn kết thúc, con tàu chỉ hoạt động được một ít lâu rồi ngừng hoạt động vào năm 1946. Đang khi bỏ không trong thành phần dự bị, nó được xếp lại lớp như một tàu sân bay trực thăng CVHE-111 vào năm 1955, rồi như một tàu vận chuyển máy bay T-AKV-11 vào năm 1959, nhưng không bao giờ tái ngũ, và cuối cùng bị bán để tháo dỡ vào năm 1971. Vella Gulf được tặng thưởng một Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.


Service History

Following initial local operations in Puget Sound, Vella Gulf sailed for San Diego and arrived there on 4 May to pick up the initial increment of her assigned Marine air group. After embarking them at the naval air station, the escort aircraft carrier conducted shakedown off the southern California coast and embarked the remainder of her group during this period. At the completion of a post-shakedown availability, she departed the west coast on 17 June, bound for Hawaii. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 25 June and conducted 11 days of intensive training operations.

Vella Gulf departed Pearl Harbor on 9 July, stopped at Eniwetok in the Marshalls on the 16th to refuel, and proceeded on to Guam, where she arrived four days later. On the 23rd, she sailed for the Marianas to conduct air strikes against Rota and Pagan Islands. The next day, she launched 24 sorties against Pagan Island with her F4U Corsairs, F6F Hellcat photographic aircraft, and TBM Avenger bombers. Three days later, the escort carrier launched 21 sorties against Rota, with a dozen Corsairs, eight Avengers and one Hellcat taking part. Light anti-aircraft fire from Japanese guns peppered the skies but failed to reach the American planes. Two planes returned from the mission having conducted their attacks from such a low altitude that shrapnel from their own bomb explosions slightly damaged their tail surfaces.

The day after the Rota strike, the ship flew off her planes to Saipan and then returned to Apra Harbor, Guam, on 2 August, for a three-day breather before heading for Okinawa on the 5th. She arrived at Buckner Bay four days later. Her one night spent in the anchorage there was a memorable one since, during the evening, word arrived that surrender negotiations with the Japanese were in progress and prompted many ships and shore-based units to set off pyrotechnics.

Vella Gulf arrived back at Guam on 15 August in time to receive the welcome news that Japan had capitulated. Vella Gulf participated in the initial occupation operations of the Japanese home islands. She provided food and fuel to other Fleet units off the coast and, in late August, alternated with Gilbert Islands in furnishing air cover for a replenishment group. The escort carrier then sailed for Tokyo Bay and arrived there on 10 September.

Departing Japanese waters on 21 September, Vella Gulf embarked 650 men at Okinawa for passage back to the west coast of the United States. After a brief stop at Pearl Harbor, she arrived at San Francisco, Calif., on 14 October. She subsequently operated in the Puget Sound area as training ship for escort carrier personnel until late March 1946, when she sailed for the coast of southern California and arrived at San Diego on 27 March. However, her stay there was brief, for she soon got underway again, touched at Port Angeles, and pushed on to Tacoma, where she began inactivation on the last day of the month. Moved to Seattle on 7 April, the ship was placed out of commission on 9 August 1946.

Placed in reserve at Tacoma, the vessel remained there into the 1960's. Reclassified as a helicopter carrier (CVHE-111) on 12 June 1955, Vella Gulf was later transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service and she was again reclassified — this time to T-AKV-11. However, she never returned to active service. Struck from the Navy list on 1 June 1960, she was reinstated on 1 November of the same year. Struck for the second time on 1 December 1970, the erstwhile escort carrier was sold to the American Ship Dismantlers, Inc., of Portland, Oregon, on 22 October 1971 and scrapped.


VMF(CVS)- 351/511/512/513 & MCVGs 1-4 Photo Section History

During the bitter fighting to hold Guadalcanal the effective use of Marine Corps aircraft for close air support of the Marines on the ground came into its own. Unfortunately due to the short legs of the fighter/attack aircraft many of the follow on island assaults had to be supported by carrier based aircraft until the airfields were captured or built, a case in point being Bougainville in late 1943. Similarly, photo reconnaissance had to be provided by long range aircraft such as the PB4Y-1Ps flown by VMD-154 and 254. In 1944 the Navy began building a large number of Commencement Bay class CVEs known as jeep carriers to provide close air support for the island campaign which at that time included plans to invade the Japanese home islands in late 1945. The Marine Corps ground commanders pressed hard to get Marine aircraft aboard them and the CMC General Vandergrift personally flew to Hawaii to persuade Admiral Nimitz to make their case.

As a result the Marines were given responsibility for the aviation complement (Marine Carrier Air Group (MCVG) for the first 8 of the new CVEs which were to begin deploying to the Pacific in the Spring of 1945 from the West Coast. Four would see limited action before WW II came to an abrupt close in mid August the USS Block Island (CVE-106), USS Gilbert Islands (CVE-107), USS Cape Gloucester (CVE-109), and the USS Vella Gulf (CVE-111).

The MCVGs were notionally comprised of a VMTB(CVS) torpedo/attack squadron with TBM-3 Avengers and a composite fighter/reconnaissance squadron VMF (CVS) that included F4U-1D/ FG-1D Corsairs, F6F-5N Hellcat night fighters, and a section of 2 F6F-5P Hellcat photo reconnaissance aircraft. A carrier aircraft service division provided support. Of note the CVE work-ups of the Hellcat photo aircraft coincided with that of VMD-354 which also deployed to the Pacific in late April 1945 with F6F-5Ps to provide dedicated land base reconnaissance. There had been a gap in deployed Marine Corps reconnaissance aircraft since October 1944 when VMD-254 stood down.

The USS Block Island with VMF (CVS)-511 sailed for Ulithi in the Carolines to join the Fifth Fleet on 17 April and then moved up to Okinawa and began combat operations on 10 May 1945, seeing continuous action until 16 June. The photo aircraft provided post strike reconnaissance for MCVG-1 operations against airfields and Japanese strongpoints.

After a brief off line period in the Philippines, the ship departed for Borneo to support the last amphibious operation of the war, landings by the Australians at Balikpapan on 30 June. The USS Block Island was joined in that action by the USS Gilbert Islands with MCVG-2 embarked which included VMF-512 (CVS) with its F6F-5P photo section. After 3 days the ship sailed for Guam for repairs to the arresting gear and had just departed there when news of the Japanese surrender came.

MCVG-2, embarked on the USS Gilbert Islands, had departed Hawaii on 2 May 1945 and arrived off Okinawa on 21 May. From 24 May until 16 June the air group helped neutralize outlying Japanese airfields and installations before departing with the USS Block Island to support the Australian landings at Balikpapan. The ship had returned to Japanese waters and joined Admiral Halsey’s 3RD Fleet when the war ended. After a show of strength cruise in support of the Chinese nationalist army off Taiwan, the ship and embarked MCVG returned to San Diego in early December and was decommissioned in May of 1946. (www.adamsplanes.com)

The USS Gloucester with VMF (CVS)-351’s photo section embarked arrived in the Philippines on 29 June 1945 and later joined the 3RD Fleet off Okinawa fighting off kamikaze planes attempting to attack minesweepers from 5 July until 17 July. The MCVG then conducted air raids and photo reconnaissance operations of shipping and airfields along the China coast until the war ended.

The last of the MCVGs to deploy to the Pacific was embarked aboard the USS Vella Gulf (CVE-111). Its composite fighter/reconnaissance squadron VMF (CVS)- 513 saw action in the Marianas islands of Rota and Pagan from 24 July until 28 July. The ship then sailed north to Okinawa arriving on 9 August to news of the impending surrender and subsequently supported initial occupation operations in the Japanese home islands before returning to San Francisco with over 600 servicemen on 14 October 1945.

(Write up provided by Col H. Wayne Whitten USMC (ret) from Wikipedia, and other sources)


Contents

This ship is the second named for the battle. The first Vella Gulf was an escort carrier commissioned on 9 April 1945 with Captain Robert W. Morse in command. A Commencement Bay class carrier, she displaced 11,373 long tons (11,556 t), carried 34 aircraft, and held a complement of 1,066 men. Vella Gulf won a battle star for air strikes against Rots and the Pagan Islands in the Marianas in July 1945 and then participated with occupying forces after the surrender of Japan. CVE-111 was deactivated and decommissioned on 9 August 1946.

Vella Gulf at anchor

The ship is sponsored by Mrs. Mary Ann McCauley and was commissioned on 18 September 1993 in ceremonies at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. A multi-mission ship, Vella Gulf is designed to be capable of sustained combat operations in Anti-Air, Anti-Submarine, Anti-Surface, and Strike warfare environments. Vella Gulf is employed in support of carrier battle groups, amphibious assault groups, as well as in interdiction and escort missions.

Vella Gulf’s diverse combat capability is orchestrated by the Aegis Combat System, a fully integrated electronic detection, engagement, and fire control system. Aegis enables Vella Gulf to detect, evaluate, and engage an enemy with great firepower and accuracy. The Vella Gulf successfully completed sea trials during the month of February 1998. In the months of May and June, the Vella Gulf completed a two month BALTOPS Cruise, taking part in the 26th annual maritime exercise U.S. Baltic Operations (BALTOPS) '98 in the Western Baltic Sea from 8 – 19 June 1998. During the exercise, the commander, Carrier Group Eight, commanded the exercise from the ship. Also, the ship completed an AMMO onload, LAMPS moved aboard, completed a successful C2X, and had made a port call at St.John, U.S. Virgin Island. Upon the completion of C2X, the Vella Gulf continued pre-deployment work-ups. In January 1999, after winning her fifth consecutive “Battle "E",” the ship commenced training operations while hosting the week-long course Force Air Defense Commander training.

Vella Gulf’s successful completion, in February 1999, of JTFEX ’99 marked the end of a ten-month work-up. The vessel headed out for deployment to the Adriatic Sea on 26 March 1999. After a six-day transit, the Vella Gulf took her position in the Adriatic Sea and participated in everything from Tomahawk Strike Ops to Fast-track Logistics Ops as part of Operation Noble Anvil. In May and June, the Vella Gulf continued to participate in support of combat operations, shot Tomahawks, assumed warfare commander duties (ADC, ASUWC, ASWC and Launch Area Coordinator), and conducted numerous at-sea refueling and stores replenishment events until the relaxation of weapons posture and cessation of hostilities. Vella Gulf began the month of August engaged in multi-ship exercises. She participated in DIVTACS, LeapFrogs, Tomahawk exercises, submarine exercises, Flight Ops, and Gunnery exercises. The Vella Gulf returned home on 22 September 1999 and went in November to Yorktown, VA for a complete weapons offload. As part of the George Washington Carrier Battle Group (CVBG), and in response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the ship set sail in support of defense and humanitarian efforts off the coast of New York. Only a week later, she deployed as part of the Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Battle Group, to the Mediterranean, and South-Asia in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. The Roosevelt Carrier Battle Group transited the Suez Canal on 13 October and arrived in the Arabian Sea on 15 October, before returning home in April 2002.

In March 2003 she was assigned to Carrier Group Eight. Ώ]

Deployment 2007 [ edit | edit source ]

On 5 January 2007, Vella Gulf departed on a six month cruise as part of the Bataan Expeditionary Strike Group (BATESG). She conducted operations in the Persian Gulf, Northern Arabian Sea with French Aircraft Carrier Charles de Gaulle (in support of Operation Enduring Freedom), Gulf of Oman and Gulf of Aden. She participated in multi-national exercises, including AMAN '07 [1], hosted by Pakistan. Vella Gulf visited Agadir, Morocco and Gaeta, Italy as liberty ports and twice pulled into Manama, Bahrain. She returned to home port in Norfolk, VA on 3 July 2007.

MV Faina incident off Somalia, 2008 [ edit | edit source ]

The Vella Gulf was identified as one of the U.S. Navy ships surrounding the MV Faina, a Ukrainian-owned, Belizian-registered ship carrying 33 T-72 tanks, RPGs and other munitions, after she was seized by pirates off Somalia on 25 September 2008. Several photographs used by news services were sourced as having been taken from the cruiser. ΐ]

Capture of alleged pirates in Gulf of Aden [ edit | edit source ]

Suspected pirates surrendering to the Vella Gulf.

On 11 February 2009 the Vella Gulf responded to a distress call from the tanker Polaris in the Gulf of Aden. The Polaris reported that pirates in a single skiff were attempting to board the tanker with ladders, though the Polaris crew was able to thwart their efforts. Upon arriving in the area, the Vella Gulf intercepted a skiff with 7 men aboard. The crew aboard the Polaris confirmed their identity as the aforementioned attackers, and the 7 were taken aboard the Vella Gulf before being transferred to the USNS Lewis and Clark for processing before being sent to Kenya for trial. Α]

Vella Gulf was involved in another action against pirates the next day on 12 February when she responded to a distress call from a merchant vessel. The Indian freighter Premdivya reported that she had been pursued by pirates and taken fire from them. The American cruiser responded by dispatching a helicopter to the scene which fired warning shots and chased the pirate skiff down. The Vella Gulf then launched a boarding party in two RHIB's and captured nine pirates, who were then sent to the Lewis and Clark as the previous batch of pirates captured by the cruiser had been. Β]


Література [ ред. | ред. код ]

  • Энциклопедия авианосцев. Под общей редакцией А. Е. Тараса / Минск, Харвест Москва, АСТ, 2002
  • Авианосцы Второй мировой. Новые властелины океанов. //С. А. Балакин, А. В. Дашьян, М. Э. Морозов. — М.:Коллекция, Яуза, 2006. ISBN 5-699-17428-1
  • С. А. Балакин — Авианосцы мира. 1939—1945. Великобритания, США, СССР.
  • Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922—1946 / US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0870219139

VELLA GULF CG 72

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Ticonderoga (Flight II) Class Guided Missile Cruiser
    Keel Laid 22 April 1991 - Launched 13 June 1992
    Christened 25 July 1992

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.


USS Vella Gulf (CG-72)

USS Vella Gulf (CG-72) is a  Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser built for, and in active service with, the United States Navy. She is the second ship named for the Battle of Vella Gulf, a naval engagement in the Solomons campaign of World War II, the first being USS Vella Gulf (CVE-111) an escort carrier commissioned in 1945. She was laid down on 22 April 1991 at Pascagoula, Mississippi, by Litton Industries, Ingalls Shipbuilding Division launched on 13 June 1992 sponsored by Mary A. McCauley, wife of Vice Admiral William F. McCauley (Ret.) and commissioned alongside Pier 12, Naval Operating Base (NOB) Norfolk, Virginia, on 18 September 1993. [1]

Designed as a multi-mission ship, Vella Gulf is capable of sustained combat operations in Anti-Air, Anti-Submarine, Anti-Surface, and Strike warfare environments. She is employed in support of carrier battle groups, amphibious assault groups, ballistic missile defense, as well as in interdiction and escort missions. Her diverse combat capability is orchestrated by the Aegis Combat System, a fully integrated electronic detection, engagement, and fire control system. Aegis enables Vella Gulf to detect, evaluate, and engage an enemy with great firepower and accuracy.


Service history

Following initial local operations in Puget Sound, Vella Gulf sailed for San Diego and arrived there on 4 May to pick up the initial increment of her assigned Marine air group. After embarking them at the naval air station, the escort aircraft carrier conducted shakedown off the southern California coast and embarked the remainder of her group during this period. At the completion of a post-shakedown availability, she departed the west coast on 17 June, bound for Hawaii. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 25 June and conducted 11 days of intensive training operations.

Vella Gulf departed Pearl Harbor on 9 July, stopped at Eniwetok in the Marshalls on 16 July to refuel, and proceeded on to Guam, where she arrived four days later. On 23 July, she sailed for the Marianas to conduct air strikes against Rota and Pagan Islands. The next day, she launched 24 sorties against Pagan Island with her Vought F4U Corsairs, Grumman F6F Hellcat photographic aircraft, and Grumman TBM Avenger bombers. Three days later, the escort carrier launched 21 sorties against Rota, with a dozen Corsairs, eight Avengers and one Hellcat taking part. Light anti-aircraft fire from Japanese guns peppered the skies but failed to reach the American planes. Two planes returned from the mission having conducted their attacks from such a low altitude that shrapnel from their own bomb explosions slightly damaged their tail surfaces.

The day after the Rota strike, the ship flew off her planes to Saipan and then returned to Apra Harbor, Guam, on 2 August, for a three-day breather before heading for Okinawa on 5 August. She arrived at Buckner Bay four days later. Her one night spent in the anchorage there was a memorable one since, during the evening, word arrived that surrender negotiations with the Japanese were in progress and prompted many ships and shore-based units to set off pyrotechnics.

Vella Gulf arrived back at Guam on 15 August in time to receive the welcome news that Japan had capitulated. Vella Gulf participated in the initial occupation operations of the Japanese home islands. She provided food and fuel to other Fleet units off the coast and, in late August, alternated with Gilbert Islands in furnishing air cover for a replenishment group. The escort carrier then sailed for Tokyo Bay and arrived there on 10 September.

Departing Japanese waters on 21 September, Vella Gulf embarked 650 men at Okinawa for passage back to the west coast of the United States. After a brief stop at Pearl Harbor, she arrived at San Francisco, California, on 14 October. She subsequently operated in the Puget Sound area as training ship for escort carrier personnel until late March 1946, when she sailed for the coast of southern California and arrived at San Diego on 27 March. However, her stay there was brief, for she soon got underway again, touched at Port Angeles, and pushed on to Tacoma, where she began inactivation on the last day of the month. Moved to Seattle on 7 April, the ship was placed out of commission on 9 August 1946.

Placed in reserve at Tacoma, the vessel remained there into the 1960s. Reclassified as a helicopter carrier (CVHE-111) on 12 June 1955, Vella Gulf was later transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service and she was again reclassified — this time to T-AKV-11. However, she never returned to active service. Struck from the Navy list on 1 June 1960, she was reinstated on 1 November of the same year. Struck for the second time on 1 December 1970, the erstwhile escort carrier was sold to the American Ship Dismantlers, Inc., of Portland, Oregon, on 22 October 1971 and scrapped.


Where do new types fit?

New vessel types are both larger and smaller than current destroyers. The large vessels arguably could be called cruisers, while the smaller ones really do have some different missions for which no ship had been designed.

Zumwalt-class

Zumwalt-class destroyers were to be the U.S. Navy followon to the Burke class, with changes in development causing them to grow to 14,000 ton vessels. [19] From the standpoint of size alone, it would not be unreasonable to think of such a vessel as a cruiser of quite substantial size. Under current U.S. definitions, however, a cruiser has a major area air defense capability, but the Zumwalts are optimized for land attack. The General Accountability Office reported to Congress that there had been serious problems in the design and construction process for the Zumwalts, and lessons needed to be learned before future classes were started, especially given the existence of the proven and expandable Burkes. [20]

Some of the proof-of-concept features include: integrated electric propulsion system and an all-composite low-signature deckhouse. The ship uses a wide range of stealth features.

Construction of the class was stopped with the third ship of the proposed 32. [21] . Admiral Gary Roughead, Chief of Naval Operations, explained that while the Zumwalts had potent technology, they were quite limited in self-defense compared to the Burkes, and he believed the funding was better spent on the Burkes. The earlier Spruance-class, built on the same hull as a Burke and deployed earlier, were also optimized for land attack, although with additional anti-submarine warfare capability. All Spruances have been decommissioned, and were not especially of interest to other navies.

Purely for land targets, especially for fire support to ground forces ashore are two 155mm Advanced Gun Systems (AGSs), fed from automated magazines. While early reports suggested that the 155mm caliber, not previously used in U.S. naval guns, would have advantages through commonality with the standard 155mm land howitzer caliber, current thinking is that very little will be alike. The AGS will have two basic kinds of ammunition, one being a long-range precision-guided munition for which there is no equivalent ground forces requirement.

If there is any sharing, it will be in the conventional munition rounds. A current 155mm howitzer, the U.S. M109 used by many countries, has a basic maximum range of 22km 30 km with rocket-assisted projectiles. Given the current concerns about the hazards of the littoral, how close to shore will one of these large vessels come? Remember, that 22 km range is from the ship to the target, not the shore to the target.

The long-range systems of the Zumwalt will, like the Burke, be her vertically launched missiles. Her Advanced Vertical Launch System (VLS) can use BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles, shorter-ranged RIM-162 ESSM (Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile) also with SAM and SSM capability, and RUM-139 VLS Anti-Submarine Rockets (ASROC). There a pair of 40mm Close-In Gun Systems for self-defense against air and sea threats. The Zumwalt, however, was not to be equipped with the AEGIS battle management system needed for area anti-air warfare with RIM-156 Standard SM-2 missiles.

Franco-Italian HORIZON SAS

Originally, the Horizons were to be a joint British, French, and Italian project. Britain dropped out in favor of its own Type 45-class, although the Aster missiles from the project remain common. The project continues as an "anti-air frigate" made by the partnershipof French Armaris and Italian Orrizonte Sistemi Navali (Fincantieri and Finmeccanica).

  • French vessels, to replace Suffren and Duquesnes
    • Forbin
    • Chevalier Paul
    • Andrea Doria
    • Caio Duilio

    While they have the same PAAMS principal anti-air missile system as the Type 45, their guns are different. The contract for series production was placed in November 2003. The prime contractor is Europaams SAS, a joint venture company two-thirds owned by Eurosam (MBDA and Thales Group) and one-third by the UKAMS subsidiary of MBDA.

    As opposed to the single 115mm of the Type 45, these have three 76mm Oto Melara in a dual mount forward and a single mount aft. Two Oto Melara Mod 503 25mm-80 caliber are, respectively, on the port and starboard sides. The main guns have a Selex NA 25 fire control system the ships also have SAGEM Vampire MB infrared search and track system (IRST), which operates in both 3-5 and 8-12-micron wavebands.

    Italian ships also carry the Otomat Mk3, a subsonic anti-shipping missile with a range up to 55km. There are a pair of quadruple launchers.

    They have two twin torpedo launchers for Eurotorp Mu 90 lightweight torpedoes, and a landing area, but no hangar, for a helicopter of the NH90 or EH101 Merlin class.

    British Type 45


    Britain is building six of the Type 45-class, which are specialized anti-air warfare destroyers, about half the size of a Burke-class. They have a vertical launch system for the Aster missile, a 4.5"/115mm gun, and a more extensive helicopter fit than the Horizons.

    They do not carry anti-shipping missiles, although these could be launched from the helicopter.

    Modern corvettes and patrol vessels

    "Corvette" has been used, for centuries, to describe various sorts of light warships. In the Second World War, they were ocean escorts smaller than destroyers. The most common modern usage is for a warship that will operate primarily coastal areas that form the "green water" littoral, although they may have adequate seakeeping qualities to sail across oceans to their operational areas. Israel, for example, used the Sa'ar-classes (Sa'ar 1 through 5) after the old destroyer INS Eilat' was sunk by an anti-shipping missile. Sa'ars were built by Northrop Grumman, in U.S. shipyards, from Israeli designs.

    Descubierta-class corvettes were built for the Spanish Navy with the cooperation of the German firm, Blohm and Voss, and also sold to the Egyptian Navy and the Moroccan Navy Blohm and Voss is especially active with smaller warships. Italian "offshore patrol vessels" of the Commandante-class also are in this category.

    While there are exceptions, corvette-type ships are often considerably slower than destroyers and far slower than fast attack craft, with top speeds of 18-23 knots. They may operate helicopters.

    Newer designs of small destroyer-like ships increasingly are "multimission". One approach is the high-technology but expensive U.S. Littoral Combat Ships, in trials with two classes. Alternatively, there are several multimission classes that may not be as flexible or quickly reconfigurable, but are considerably cheaper.

    Littoral combat ships

    Under names such as Littoral Combat Ship and "Streetfighter", roles are being defined for smaller vessels that may be the "small boys" of the future. These boys will play in a different neighborhood than their fathers and grandfathers, who were designed to operate in the "blue water" of the deep ocean.

    As the first torpedo boat destroyers needed to be "self-deployable", so does the Littoral Combat Ship. [1] The LCS, however, has a much wider range of potential missions than did a pure torpedo boat destroyer, including:

    • antisubmarine warfare: with the special considerations of detecting quiet submarines in the difficult acoustic conditions of the littoral
    • mine countermeasures: Again, finding mines is much harder on a cluttered, rocky shallow bottom than in deep water
    • anti-surface warfare: The threat here is not only from conventional naval vessels, but also from explosive-laden small boats, with a crew prepared to die, such as the 2000 attack on the USS Cole. Suicide attacks are not the only threat missile boats can be concealed along the coast, rush out, and fire at short range.
    • naval special operations support: "mothership" for special reconnaissance, raids, deception, placement of intelligence sensors, etc., by specialists such as the British Special Boat Service, U.S. Navy SEALs, etc.
    • Noncombatant evacuation operations / Humanitarian Assistance / Medical support
    • Boarding and inspecting ships
    • Security survey prior to arrival of large forces

    Multipurpose ships

    Denmark has built the Absalon-class "Combat/Flexible Support Ship", which essentially are small destroyers with a configurable internal deck and a stern ramp. They can be configured for amphibious warfare, hospital ship, command ship, minelayer or special operations roles. [22] HDMS Absalon participated in anti-piracy operations with Combined Task Force 151.

    Blohm and Voss build the MEKO-class ("Mehrzweck-Kombination") multipurpose ships designated from frigates to corvettes to patrol boats. South African Valour-class frigates are MEKO A200-SAN designs. ThyssenKrupp, the parent of Blohm and Voss, has sold its civil shipbuilding operations to a firm in Abu Dhabi, and is establishing a joint venture to build warships. [23]

    Israel had been considering participating in the Littoral Combat Ship program, but concluded the cost was excessive, and plans to go with a Meko-A series corvette with significant amounts of Israeli-manufactured equipment, especially electronics, and possibly building the vessels under license at Israeli shipyards. Israel also rejected, for cost reasons, a Northrop Grumman proposal for an enhanced Sa'ar. [24] It is not known if the Abu Dhabi participation in manufacturing will affect the Israeli decision. [25]


    Watch the video: USS Port Royal OR USS Vella Gulf?? Which One Is The Best.? Modern Warships