What is the longest river in the world?

What is the longest river in the world?

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The longest river in the world, measured from its mouth to its most distant, year-round source, is likely the Amazon, which flows 4,345 miles from the Peruvian Andes through Brazil to the Atlantic Ocean. However, much depends on how you measure it. Until 2007, the title belonged to the Nile, which runs 4,258 miles from the mountains of Burundi to its famed and fertile delta fan, where Egypt meets the Mediterranean Sea. The two lengths are close enough that measuring techniques and philosophies can be quite controversial. In fact, the geographers who crowned the Amazon champion were funded in part by the Brazilian government.

The Ancient Egyptians were familiar with the Nile as far upstream as today’s Khartoum, Sudan, some 1,700 miles from the river’s mouth. In A.D. 150 Ptolemy, the famed Greek geographer living in Roman Egypt, wrote that the river originated in the “Mountains of the Moon” deep in the African interior. In 1862 English explorer John Hanning Speke journeyed from Africa’s east coast to find what he considered to be the source, where the river exits Lake Victoria in present-day Uganda.

Geographers did not explore the Amazon’s most distant sources until the mid-20th century, and it was only with the advent of GPS technologies that ever-more accurate estimates, like the 2007 survey, were made possible. Great rivers change course over the seasons and the years, making it difficult to determine which measurement comprises its accurate length. As the crow flies, it is about 2,400 miles from the Nile’s source to its outlet (the meandering Amazon covers a mere 1,100 miles of straight-line distance).

The Euphrates River

Mesopotamia was the area between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Euphrates is described as the southernmost of the two rivers but also appears on maps to the west of the Tigris. It starts in eastern Turkey, flows through Syria and into Mesopotamia (Iraq) before joining the Tigris to flow into the Persian Gulf.

The Xia Dynasty

The final part of the Mythical Period was under the rule of the legendary Xia Dynasty, which may have been mythological. After the final ruler became corrupt, he was overthrown by Cheng Tang, who founded the Shang Dynasty.

Learning Objectives

Recall characteristics of the Xia Dynasty

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Sima Qian ‘s “Historical Records,” the first comprehensive history of China, said that the last of the Five Emperors, Emperor Shun, left his throne to Yu the Great, who founded the Xia Dynasty.
  • The Xia Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty it is still not known whether this dynasty existed or is only mythological.
  • According to mythology, when the last Xia king became corrupt and cruel, Cheng Tang overthrew him in c. 1760 BCE and founded the Shang Dynasty.
  • Many argue that the Zhou Dynasty, which ruled China much later, invented the idea of the Xia Dynasty to support their claim that China could only be, and had always been, ruled by one ruler.

Key Terms

  • Mandate of Heaven: The Chinese philosophical concept of the circumstances under which a ruler is allowed to rule. Good rulers were allowed to rule under the Mandate of heaven, while despotic, unjust rulers had the Mandate revoked.
  • Sima Qian: A renowned Chinese historiographer of the 2nd century BCE who wrote about the Xia Dynasty.
  • Shang Dynasty: Also called the Yin Dynasty, succeeded the Xia Dynasty and followed the Zhou Dynasty. It existed in the second millennium BCE.

Sima Qian’s Historical Records

The earliest comprehensive history of China is the Historical Records, written by Sima Qian, a renowned Chinese historiographer of the 2nd century BCE. This history begins around 3600 BCE, with an account of the Five Emperors. According to this history, the last of the great Five Emperors, Emperor Shun, left his throne to Yu the Great, who founded China’s First Dynasty, the Xia Dynasty. Yu supposedly began the practice of inherited rule (passing power from father to son), a model that was perpetuated in the later Shang and Zhou dynasties.

Depiction of Yu the Great: This hanging scroll shows Yu the Great, as imagined by Song Dynasty painter Ma Lin.

According to mythology, Yu’s descendants ruled China for nearly 500 years, until the last Xia king became corrupt and cruel. This led to his overthrow in c. 1760 BCE by Cheng Tang, who founded a new dynasty, the Shang Dynasty, in the Huang River Valley.

Sima Qian’s Historical Records: The first page of Sima Qian’s Historical Records.

Debate Over the Existence of the Xia Dynasty

There is much debate among scholars about how much of this mythology is true. Many argue that the Zhou Dynasty, which ruled China much later, invented the idea of the Xia Dynasty to support their claim that China could only be, and had always been, ruled by one ruler. The Zhou created the idea of the “Mandate of Heaven,” which stated that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at any given time. If he was a good ruler, he would have the support of heaven if he was despotic, he would be overthrown. The various small states that had comprised Neolithic and Bronze Age China contradicted this version of history. Some people argue, therefore, that the Zhou may have created the idea of an ancient Xia Dynasty to support the idea that China always had one ruler.

Nonetheless, the Xia Dynasty may not be a complete fabrication recent archaeological evidence may support its existence. (For a long time it was believed that the later Shang Dynasty may also have been purely mythological, until archaeology proved that it was real.) Archaeologists have discovered an advanced Bronze Age culture in China. Its capital, Erlitou, was a huge city around 2000 BCE. This may in fact be the people referred to in Chinese mythology as the Xia. It is believed that the Xia may have created a primitive writing system, though no evidence of this has been found. However, evidence does suggest that the Xia developed agricultural methods and experienced considerable prosperity. However, lack of irrigation and flood protection made the region prone to frequent floods and other natural disasters.

List [ edit | edit source ]

Tigranes was named as the king of kings.

ΐ] Α] ||1975||From the landing of Columbus in the Americas to the abandonment of the last African colony of Western Sahara.||Was among the first truly global empires

Β] ||1999||Was the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. From the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the hand over of Macau 1999.||Was one of the first truly global empires.

Huang He Valley

The areas surrounding China&rsquos second-longest river were home to the oldest dynasties of ancient China, making the Huang He Valley the birthplace of Chinese civilization.

Anthropology, Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History

Huang He Valley

The Huang He (Yellow River) Valley is the birthplace of Chinese Civilization. The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and one of the longest river systems in the world.

Huang He Valley (or in English, Yellow River Valley) was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and for that reason is often called &ldquoMother River.&rdquo The valley surrounds the principal river of northern China and is at the center of thousands of years of Chinese history. At over 5,400 kilometers (3,300 miles) long, the Huang He is China&rsquos second-longest river. It has a drainage basin of around 750,000 square kilometers (290,000 square miles), the third largest basin area in China. It is called the Yellow River because its waters carry silt, which give the river its yellow-brown color, and when the river overflows, it leaves a yellow residue behind. While the river helps create fertile land that is suited for farming, during certain times of the year the Huang He frequently overflows. The water damages housing and crops across the North China Plain, an important agricultural region. Because of this, the Huang He is also nicknamed &ldquoChina&rsquos Sorrow.&rdquo For thousands of years, the Chinese have embarked on major public works projects to control and irrigate the water from the Huang He, including hydroelectric dams in modern times. Despite the possibility of flooding, the Huang He Valley basin is home to a huge population, and many of China&rsquos oldest cities are situated along the river.

It is hard to say exactly when villages and tribes began arising in the Huang He Valley, but most scholars agree that a major power consolidation occurred from around 2100 to 1600 B.C.E., creating the Xia Dynasty. During that time, tribal leaders came together to try to solve the problem of the Huang He overflowing and wiping out their villages and crops. Da Yu, or Yu the Great, is a mythological figure who created systems to control the floods in the Huang He Valley, and is credited as the first leader of the Xia Dynasty. With the ability to better control the Huang He and save their crops from flooding, Chinese leaders were able to solidify their rule of China, and a number of dynasties headquartered in the region followed. The valley became the center of Chinese culture, society, and learning.

The Huang He (Yellow River) Valley is the birthplace of Chinese Civilization. The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and one of the longest river systems in the world.


Twenty-five longest-reigning monarchs of states that were internationally sovereign for most or all of their reign.

No. Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Louis XIV [1] France 14 May 1643 1 September 1715 26,407 72 years, 110 days
2 Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) [2] Thailand 9 June 1946 13 October 2016 25,694 70 years, 126 days
3 Johann II [3] Liechtenstein 12 November 1858 11 February 1929 25,658 70 years, 91 days
4 Elizabeth II [4] United Kingdom
New Zealand [5] [a]
6 February 1952 [5] Incumbent 25,343 69 years, 140 days
5 Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I [6] Palenque 29 July 615 [b] 31 August 683 24,870 68 years, 33 days
6 Franz Joseph I [7] Austria
2 December 1848 21 November 1916 24,825 67 years, 355 days
7 Constantine VIII [c] [8] Byzantine Empire 30 March 962 11 November 1028 24,332 66 years, 226 days
8 Basil II [d] [9] 22 April 960 15 December 1025 23,977 65 years, 237 days
9 Ferdinand III [10] Sicily 6 October 1759 4 January 1825 23,831 65 years, 90 days
10 Victoria [11] United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
11 James I [12] Aragon 12 September 1213 27 July 1276 22,964 62 years, 319 days
12 Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) [e] [14] Japan 25 December 1926 7 January 1989 22,659 62 years, 13 days
13 Kangxi Emperor [f] [15] China (Qing dynasty) 5 February 1661 20 December 1722 22,597 61 years, 318 days
14 Qianlong Emperor [g] [16] 18 October 1735 9 February 1796 22,029 60 years, 114 days
15 Friedrich Günther [17] Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 28 April 1807 28 June 1867 21,976 60 years, 61 days
16 Christian IV [18] Denmark-Norway 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 21,879 59 years, 330 days
17 Kilhan [19]
[ unreliable source? ]
[ better source needed ]
Dhundhar 16 December 1216 18 October 1276 21,856 59 years, 307 days
18 George III [20] Great Britain [h]
Ireland [h]
United Kingdom [h]
Hanover [i]
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
19 Honoré III [21] Monaco 7 November 1733 19 January 1793 21,623 59 years, 73 days
20 Elizabeth II [22] [23] Jamaica 6 August 1962 Incumbent 21,509 58 years, 324 days
21 Louis XV [24] France 1 September 1715 10 May 1774 21,436 58 years, 251 days
22 Pedro II [25] Brazil 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 21,407 58 years, 222 days
23 Nicholas I [26] Montenegro 13 August 1860 26 November 1918 21,288 58 years, 105 days
24 Honoré I [27] Monaco 22 August 1523 7 October 1581 21,231 58 years, 46 days
25 Wilhelmina [28] Netherlands 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 21,104 57 years, 286 days
Updated daily according to UTC.

The table below contains monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign.

"(HRE)" indicates a semi-sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. "(HRE*)" indicates a reign that began when the state was within the Empire and continued after its dissolution.

No. Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Sobhuza II [j] Swaziland (British protectorate until 1968) 10 December 1899 21 August 1982 30,204 82 years, 254 days
2 Bernhard VII Lippe (HRE) 12 August 1429 2 April 1511 29,818 81 years, 234 days
3 William IV Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 26 May 1480 24 January 1559 28,731 78 years, 243 days
4 Karansinhji [30] Lakhtar State (part of British Raj from 1858) 15 June 1846 8 August 1924 28,543 78 years, 54 days
5 Heinrich XI [k] [31] [32] Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE) 17 March 1723 28 June 1800 28,227 77 years, 103 days
6 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri, [33] Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) (part of British Malaya until 1957) 31 May 1929 26 December 2005 27,968 76 years, 209 days
7 Christian August Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE) 14 August 1632 23 April 1708 27,645 75 years, 253 days
8 Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar Phaltan (part of British Raj from 1858) 7 December 1841 17 October 1916 27,342 74 years, 315 days
9 Bhagvatsingh Sahib Gondal state (British Raj) 14 December 1869 10 March 1944 27,114 74 years, 87 days
10 George William Schaumburg-Lippe (HRE*) (Between 1807 and 1815 part of the Confederation of the Rhine, from 1815 part of the German Confederation.) 13 February 1787 21 November 1860 26,944 73 years, 282 days
11 Charles Frederick Baden (HRE*) 12 May 1738 10 June 1811 26,691 73 years, 29 days
12 John Louis Nassau-Saarbrücken (HRE) 19 October 1472 4 June 1545 26,525 72 years, 228 days [l]
13 Henry Frederick Hohenlohe-Langenburg (HRE) 29 January 1628 5 August 1699 26,121 71 years, 188 days
14 Jagatjit Singh Kapurthala (British Raj) 3 September 1877 20 August 1948 25,918 70 years, 352 days [m]
15 Parashuramrao Shrinivas Aundh (India) 30 August 1777 11 June 1848 25,852 70 years, 286 days
16 Franz Karl Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (HRE) 15 November 1627 19 July 1698 25,814 70 years, 246 days
17 Karl August Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (HRE*) 28 May 1758 14 June 1828 25,584 70 years, 17 days
18 Alberico I [it] Massa and Carrara (HRE) 6 June 1553 18 January 1623 25,428 69 years, 226 days
19 Werner Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (HRE) 31 October 1559 16 February 1629 25,311 69 years, 108 days
20 Heinrich Joseph Johann Auersperg (HRE) 6 November 1713 9 February 1783 25,297 69 years, 95 days
21 Frederick III [n] Inner Austria (HRE) 10 June 1424 19 August 1493 25,272 69 years, 70 days
22 George William Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (HRE) 16 December 1600 25 December 1669 25,211 69 years, 9 days
23 George I Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 24 September 1405 21 September 1474 25,199 68 years, 362 days
24 Frederick V Hesse-Homburg (HRE*) 7 February 1751 20 January 1820 25,183 68 years, 347 days
25 Vikramatji Khimojiraj [ citation needed ] Porbandar (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 20 June 1831 21 April 1900 25,142 68 years, 305 days
26 Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Mysore (British Subsidiary alliance, then part of British Raj from 1858) 30 June 1799 27 March 1868 25,107 68 years, 271 days
27 Johann Friedrich [de] Castell-Rüdenhausen (HRE) 10 January 1681 23 June 1749 25,000 68 years, 164 days
28 Sawant Singh [ citation needed ] Pratapgarh (India) 26 October 1775 5 January 1844 24,907 68 years, 71 days
29 Christian Karl Reinhard Leiningen-Dagsburg (HRE) 3 November 1698 17 November 1766 24,850 68 years, 14 days
30 Ram Singh Bundi State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) [ citation needed ] 14 May 1821 28 March 1889 24,790 67 years, 318 days
31 Malietoa Tanumafili II Samoa 7 January 1940 11 May 2007 24,596 67 years, 124 days
32 Henry III Meissen (HRE) 18 January 1221 15 February 1288 24,499 67 years, 28 days
33 Eleanor [o] Aquitaine (France) 9 April 1137 1 April 1204 24,464 66 years, 358 days
34 Augustus Anhalt-Plötzkau(HRE) 6 December 1586 22 August 1653 24,366 66 years, 259 days
35 Amarsinhji Banesinhji [p] Wankaner (British Raj) 12 June 1881 15 February 1948 24,353 66 years, 248 days
36 Khengarji III Cutch (British Raj) 19 December 1875 15 January 1942 24,133 66 years, 27 days
37 Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah Sultanate of Serdang (Indonesia) 20 December 1879 4 December 1945 24,090 65 years, 349 days
38 Leopold III Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 16 December 1751 9 August 1817 23,977 65 years, 236 days
39 John I Brittany (France) 21 October 1221 8 October 1286 23,728 64 years, 352 days
40 Frederick William Hohenzollern-Hechingen (HRE) 13 January 1671 14 November 1735 23,680 64 years, 305 days
41 Albert V Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 24 September 1405 24 September 1469 23,376 64 years, 0 days
42 Ibrahim Johor, Malaysia (part of British Malaya until 1957) 4 June 1895 8 May 1959 23,348 63 years, 338 days
43 Sayajirao Gaekwad III Baroda State (British Raj) 27 May 1875 6 February 1939 23,265 63 years, 256 days
44 Albert Anton Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (HRE) 4 November 1646 24 June 1710 23,242 63 years, 232 days
45 Anton Günther Oldenburg (HRE) 12 November 1603 19 June 1667 23,230 63 years, 219 days
46 Frederick Augustus I [q] Saxony (HRE*) 17 December 1763 5 May 1827 23,149 63 years, 139 days
47 Ludwig I [r] Anhalt (HRE) 6 December 1586 January 7, 1650 23,043 63 years, 32 days
48 Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa Bahrain (British protectorate from 1880) 1 December 1869 9 December 1932 23,018 63 years, 8 days
49 Charles III Upper Lorraine (HRE) 12 June 1545 14 May 1608 22,982 62 years, 337 days
50 Johann Friedrich II Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 17 October 1702 24 August 1765 22,957 62 years, 311 days
51 Bernhard II Saxe-Meiningen (HRE*) 24 December 1803 20 September 1866 22,916 62 years, 270 days
52 Philip II Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 2 July 1429 19 March 1492 22,906 62 years, 261 days [s]
53 Nicolas Leopold I Salm-Hoogstraat (HRE) 6 June 1707 4 February 1770 22,889 62 years, 243 days
54 Christian II [t] Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (HRE) 16 September 1654 25 April 1717 22,866 62 years, 221 days
55 Léopold Philippe Arenberg (HRE) 19 August 1691 4 March 1754 22,842 62 years, 197 days
56 Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan Tonk (British Raj) 20 December 1867 23 June 1930 22,830 62 years, 185 days
57 Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi Ras Al Khaimah (part of the British Protectorate of Trucial states until 1971, then the United Arab Emirates) 17 July 1948 27 October 2010 22,747 62 years, 102 days
58 Nahar Singh Shahpura (British Raj) 21 April 1870 24 June 1932 22,709 62 years, 64 days [ citation needed ]
59 Franz William Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur (HRE) 1 January 1673 31 December 1734 22,643 61 years, 364 days
60 Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah Kedah Sultanate (British Malaya) 22 September 1881 13 May 1943 22,512 61 years, 233 days
61 Philip IV Waldeck-Wildungen (HRE) 28 May 1513 30 November 1574 22,466 61 years, 186 days
62 Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh Lunavada (British Raj) 31 October 1867 27 April 1929 22,458 61 years, 178 days
63 Paku Alam VIII Pakualaman (Indonesia) 12 April 1937 11 September 1998 22,432 61 years, 152 days
64 Victor Amadeus Anhalt-Bernburg (HRE) 22 September 1656 14 February 1718 22,424 61 years, 145 days
65 Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara Banswara State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 2 February 1844 29 April 1905 22,366 61 years, 86 days [ citation needed ]
65 Ulrich V Württemberg-Stuttgart (HRE) 2 July 1419 1 September 1480 22,342 61 years, 61 days [u]
67 Ranbir Singh Jind (British Raj) 7 March 1887 31 March 1948 22,304 61 years, 24 days [v] [ citation needed ]
68 Ernst Ludwig Hesse-Darmstadt (HRE) 31 August 1678 12 September 1739 22,291 61 years, 12 days
69 Johann Friedrich I Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 11 October 1641 17 October 1702 22,285 61 years, 6 days
70 Wilhelm Moritz II Isenburg-Philippseich (HRE) 8 March 1711 7 March 1772 22,280 60 years, 365 days
71 Christian Ernest Stolberg-Wernigerode (HRE) 9 November 1710 25 October 1771 22,265 60 years, 350 days
72 Adolf III Schauenburg and Holstein (HRE) 6 July 1164 3 January 1225 22,096 60 years, 181 days
73 Leopold Louis Palatinate-Veldenz (HRE) 3 June 1634 29 September 1694 22,033 60 years, 118 days
74 Johann Jakob I Waldburg-Zeil (HRE) 4 May 1614 [w] 18 April 1674 21,899 59 years, 349 days
75 Gustav Adolph Mecklenburg-Güstrow (HRE) 23 April 1636 6 October 1695 21,715 59 years, 166 days
76 George Frederick I Brandenburg-Ansbach (HRE) 27 December 1543 25 April 1603 21,669 59 years, 119 days
77 Charles I Hesse-Kassel (HRE) 1 December 1670 23 March 1730 21,661 59 years, 112 days
78 Marie Teresa Cybo-Malaspina Massa and Carrara (HRE) 17 October 1731 29 December 1790 21,623 59 years, 73 days
79 Abdul Halim Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia) 14 July 1958 11 September 2017 21,609 59 years, 59 days
80 Pakubuwono XII Surakarta (Indonesia) 11 June 1945 11 June 2004 21,550 59 years, 0 days [34]
81 Barnim I Pomerania-Stettin (HRE) 23 January 1220 13 December 1278 21,509 58 years, 324 days [35]
82 Ludovico I Saluzzo (HRE) October 1416 8 April 1475 21,373 58 years, 189 days
83 Philip Hesse-Philippsthal (HRE) 16 July 1663 18 June 1721 21,156 57 years, 337 days
84 Philipp I Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 20 September 1371 2 July 1429 21,104 57 years, 285 days
85 Philipp I Hesse (HRE) 11 July 1509 31 March 1567 21,082 57 years, 263 days

These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a precise ranking by length of reign. The list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the tables above, at minimum 57 years.

Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, reigned for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have reigned for about 101 years. These figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars. For those see Longevity myths.

Somme Offensive

Source: By Ernest Brooks – Public Domain

When the German army launched the attack on Verdun, the Allied forces (British and French) had already determined to attack German strongholds on the River Somme. As a result, the French could not commit the promised troops to the offensive as they were defending their positions at Verdun. This caused the British troops to be overrun on the first day. They lost just over 57,000 soldiers.

Yet, over the course of several battles for the forts and strongholds near the Somme, the British and French eventually overwhelmed German defenses that were dug in to trenches.

Did You Know?

This was the first instance of the heavy use of tanks in ground combat. Most of the tanks broke down during battle.

Key Facts & Information


  • The Yellow River has been involved in several deadly floods that have happened in the history of China. Some of these deadly floods include the 1332-1333 flood during the Yuan dynasty, the 1887 flood during the Qing dynasty, and the 1931 flood during the Republic of China era.
  • The 1887 Qing dynasty flood killed around 900,000 to 2 million people, while the 1931 Republic of China flood killed around 1 million to 4 million people.
  • The main cause of these floods is the large amount of fine-grained loess that the river carries from the Loess Plateau.
  • The sedimentation creates natural dams, and due to the enormous amount of water, the water has to find new ways to the sea, which eventually causes floods.


  • The Yellow River rises in southern Qinghai province on the Plateau of Tibet and then crosses six provinces and two autonomous regions.
  • These include Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, and Shandong.
  • Currently, the mouth of the Yellow River is located in Kenli County in in Shandong.
  • The following are the tributaries of the Yellow River: White River, Black River, Datong River, Daxia River, Tao River, Zuli River, Qingshui River, Dahei River, Kuye River, Wuding River, Fen River, Wei River, Luo River, Qin River, Dawen River, and Kuo River.


  • The Yellow River is divided into three parts: a mountainous upper course, a middle course across a plateau, and a lower course across a low plain.
  • The upper course of the river crosses two large bodies of water, Ngoring Lake and Gyaring Lake. These bodies of water are rich in fish but freeze over during the winter season.
  • The upper course consists mainly of inaccessible, highly mountainous, sparsely populated terrain with a cold climate.
  • The middle course flows northeast through the sandy soils of Ningxia and Ordos Plateau.
  • Then, the river turns eastward and flows through the alluvial plains in Inner Mongolia.
  • The river then turns southward and forms the border between the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces.
  • The lower course flows through Henan and Shandong provinces across the North China Plain.
  • The Yellow River has changed its course across the North China Plain several times. Due to this, inhabitants of the region have built extensive systems of levees and irrigation works in an attempt to control the river’s flow.
  • The tributaries of the Yellow River include the White River, Black River, Huang Shui, Daxia River, Tao River, Zuli River, Qingshui River, Dahei River, Kuye River, Wuding River, Fen River, Wei River, Luo River, Qin River, Dawen River, and Kuo River.
  • There are also bridges and ferries situated along the Yellow River.
  • Some of these include the Jinan Yellow River Bridge, Luokou Yellow River Railway Bridge, Kaifeng Yellow River Bridge, Yinchuan Yellow River Bridge, and Zhongshan Bridge.


  • The Yellow River is rich in fish. However, due to overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution, there has been a decline in the fish population.
  • Cyprinidae is the most diverse family in the Yellow River basin.
  • Some other families that can be found in the Yellow River include stone loaches, gobies, true loaches, and bagrid catfish.
  • The upper part of the Yellow River is dominated by salmonids.
  • In contrast, the lower part of the Yellow River is home to many brackish species, like gobies, Asian seabasses, flatfish, and Takifugu pufferfish.
  • Other fish in the Yellow River include Asian carp, northern snakehead, and Asian swamp eel.
  • Two turtle species are native to the Yellow River basin. These two species are the Chinese pond turtle and the Chinese softshell turtle.
  • The Chinese giant salamander is native to the Yellow River and to other Chinese rivers. It is largely farmed for food and traditional medicinal uses.


  • Severe pollution due to factory discharges, wastes, and other factors has made parts of the Yellow River unusable for agricultural and industrial use.
  • The Yellow River and its floods have been central to the legend, folklore, and written history of Chinese civilization.


  • Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, a Russian traveler, was the first European to explore the upper reaches of the Yellow River in 1879 and 1884.
  • Systematic study of the river basin was first done in the 1950s by Chinese and Soviet scientists.

Yellow River Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Yellow River across 23 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Yellow River worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Yellow River, also known as Huang He, which is best known as the second-longest river in China and sixth-longest river system in the world.

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • Yellow River Facts
  • The Yellow River
  • Along The River
  • Why?
  • History
  • Tributaries
  • In The River
  • Turtle Species
  • Salamander
  • Let’s Clean!
  • Documentary

Link/cite this page

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Use With Any Curriculum

These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.

Egypt Nile River Facts

The Nile river used to provide the ancient Egyptians with fertile land. The soil along the Nile was rich with different growing crops, which are wheat “the main Egyptians staple food”, papyrus “that were used in paper, baskets, and sandals”, and flax “that was used in manufacturing linen clothes for clothing”. The Nile River has always been the life source for all living creatures since the Stone Age. The Nile has made life in the Egyptian desert possible. It provides drinking water, a source of irrigation for crops, and the most important thing is the fertile soil used to grow crops.

Without the Nile River, the ancient Egyptian Civilization would not have survived. It has made it easy for cities and civilizations along the Nile to grow. Through the Nile, The ancient Egyptians have developed methods for the irrigation system, which helped them to grow and to have such a unique civilization. The Nile river is considered to be a weapon that protects Egypt from the upcoming water war. Egypt without the Nile is just a desert.

What is the longest river in the world? - HISTORY

Exodus 7:17 - Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I [am] the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that [is] in mine hand upon the waters which [are] in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

Map of The Nile River (Old Testament)

Egypt and the Nile River. The land of Egypt was blessed with the Nile River, and everything near this river was fruitful. Egypt was truly called "the gift of the Nile", and without this magnificent river everything around would be a desert. In Egypt the desert is everywhere, but along both sides of the Nile River is black mud which created lush farmland. The great mountains of Africa carry rich soil into Egypt via the Nile River. Nearly every year the Nile River would overflow its banks, when the snow on the mountains had melted. This would cause the soil near the banks of the Nile to be very rich and fertile, and this is the reason why Egypt was called "the gift of the Nile".

Geographical Facts. The Nile River is the longest river in the entire world, flowing over 4000 miles from its origin down in Central Africa and dumping into the Mediterranean Sea. In fact the river flows from south to north which is very unusual for a river. The Nile River is between 2 miles and 30 miles wide depending on where you are along the river. If one were to park along the bank of the river and walk on shore, there would be lush dark soil or "black mud" for a period of time, and suddenly it would become dry sandy desert colored red. In the ancient world when people noticed this dark line running down the landscape, they describe it as looking like a thread, and the Egyptians referred to it as "Redland Blackland." The Egyptians built their homes in the desert a short distance away from the rich dark black thread of soil. According to Genesis 10 the father of Egypt was Noah's grandson Mizraim whose name comes from two words that means "red soil" and "two Matzor or Egypts" which no doubt alludes to the red color of the desert sand, and a prophecy of the dual nature of Upper and Lower Egypt. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr.

The Nile Delta. At the northernmost portion of the Nile River, also known as the mouth, there is the great Nile Delta. In fact this is the meaning of the word Delta, when a river flows for a very long time the mouth begins to form many channels. The word Delta is actually the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet and looks like a triangle, with a point on one end and a fan on the opposite end, and this fan provides the imagery of the mouth of a river. The Delta never stops widening because of the new soil deposits.

Etymology of the word "Nile". The Greek word Nilus is not an Egyptian word or meaning, nor is the Semitic word Nahar which means river. The ancient Egyptians revealed the meaning in the hieroglyphic names of the river, in reference to various gods and goddesses, for example Isis, and the natural attributes of the Nile River attributed to her. Hapi means that "overspreads", Nu means that is "lifted up". Uka speaks of what "gushes forth". Akba Ura speaks of "great weeping", when the Nile overflows its banks. The ancient Egyptians also spoke of the river as a divine serpent.

Genesis 12:9-10 - "And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south. And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there for the famine was grievous in the land."

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