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Watch a Venezuelan F-16 shoot down an OV-10 Bronco
Posted On April 29, 2020 15:44:36
Venezuela and the United States didn’t always have such a contentious relationship. The country was traditionally awash with funds from oil sales, and when you have that kind of cash, everyone wants to be your friend. In 1982, Venezuela signed a deal for fifteen F-16A and six F-16B fighter aircraft from the U.S.
The country would need them just a few years later.
The threat to Venezuela’s government didn’t come from an external invader, it came from within. In 1992, the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement attempted to overthrow the government of Carlos Andres-Perez, who survived two such attempts in just a year’s time. Both were led by a guy named Hugo Chavez, whose supporters were angry about the country’s outstanding debt and out-of-control spending.
TFW you’re about to run South America’s richest economy into the ground.
Venezuelan armed forces, under the command of Lt. Col. Hugo Chavez, launched two coup attempts in 1992. The second coup, which took place in November of that year, saw leaders from the Air Force and Navy take command while Chavez was still in prison for the first attempt. They learned from the mistakes of the previous attempt and seized major air bases — but not all of the pilots.
Chavez’ rebels used OV-10 Broncos to support rebel operations, but loyalist pilots were already in the air and they were flying F-16s. That’s what led to the confrontation below, filmed on the ground by a civilian.
The video above shows a government F-16 turning into the Bronco before hitting its speed brakes and firing its 20mm cannon. The burst sent the OV-10 down in flames. There’s another angle of the dogfight, taken by a local news crew.
Though both of the coups failed, Chavez ultimately became president, but through legitimate means in 1998. He won the Venezuelan presidency with 56 percent of the vote. After his election, Venezuela’s relations with the United States soured and the country could no longer maintain its fleet of F-16s due to an arms embargo slapped on by the administration of George W. Bush.
Now, the Venezuelan Air Force relies on the Russian-built Sukhoi-30 multirole fighter for the bulk of its fighter missions. It still has at least 19 F-16s, but has little capacity to care for the aging aircraft.
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10 Awesome New Inventions You'll Never Hear About
Some inventions are so ubiquitous that it's difficult to imagine they started as an idea scribbled on paper and then a patent application submitted to, say, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Aluminum foil, adhesive bandages, the ballpoint pen, the computer mouse, the microwave oven -- these are just a few examples of great ideas that became indispensable products we now take for granted.
Nevertheless, of the 520,277 applications that inventors filed with USPTO in 2010, chances are that not even half will be granted patents, and far fewer will become commercial successes [source: USPTO]. For every new gadget that becomes a household name and changes our lives, there are thousands of others that languish in patent office files, unappreciated except perhaps as curiosities. Some of them are ingenious, but plagued with small but fatal flaws. Others are too outlandish to ever gain widespread acceptance. A few are simply ahead of their time.
In that spirit, here are 10 of the most outré technological advances from recent years -- inventions that push the boundaries of innovation, yet seem unlikely to gain widespread acceptance. Enjoy them with a caveat: There were people who scoffed at the notion that the motorized carriage would ever replace the convenience of having a horse, and others who figured that nobody would ever need or want to carry a telephone around in their pocket. Enjoy.
The helmet used by the U.S. military has changed dramatically over the years. In World War I, the M1917/M1917A1 helmets, also known as "Doughboy" or "dishpan" helmets, protected the heads of American infantrymen. They were replaced in 1941 by the M-1 "steel pot," the standard-issue helmet in World War II, the Korean conflict and throughout the Vietnam War. By the 1980s, U.S. military helmets had evolved into a one-piece structure composed of multiple layers of Kevlar 29 ballistic fiber.
The helmet of the near future, however, may contain something more than extra protection from flying shrapnel. An Arizona State University researcher, working under a grant from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), is trying to develop a military helmet equipped with technology to regulate soldiers' brains. The technology is transcranial pulsed ultrasound, which delivers high-frequency sound waves to specific regions of the brain. Under the influence of these sound waves, neurons send impulses to their targets, exerting control over them. On the battlefield, this has enormous implications. Using a controller, a soldier could release ultrasound pulses to stimulate different areas of the brain. For example, he or she might want to be more alert after being awake for many hours or relax when it's time to catch some shuteye. The soldier might even be able to relieve stress or become oblivious to pain, eliminating the need for morphine and other narcotics.
Of course, some people think this type of neurotechnology is pure science fiction. Others worry that Uncle Sam is trying to take over the minds of its soldiers. After all, it's one thing to have a drill sergeant yelling in your ear. It's another thing completely to have one inside your head [source: Dillow].
GPS, drones, microwaves and other everyday technologies born on the battlefield
War is never as easy topic to discuss, as it divides many apart – physically, emotionally, intelligently, and ethically. As Americans mark May 26 as a day to remember all those who have fallen – who gave their lives in order to preserve ours – we take a look at some of the technologies that were invented or advanced during wartime, which have now been adopted into civilian use.
It’s difficult to describe any good that comes out of warfare, but research and development – both military and commercial – have led to many post-war contributions in tech. Modern things like nuclear power, computers, zippers, medicine, armor, money, and even the teabag could be traced to conflicts as far back as the Civil War (or older). Here are some of those that we still use today.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is so common that every smartphone uses it to find its location. But this network of satellites was originally set up by the U.S. Department of Defense in the 1970s (as a successor to radio-based navigation systems) for military purposes, such as giving submarines accurate positions for missiles launched. President Ronald Reagan ordered GPS to be made available to civilians once it was completed, while President Bill Clinton later declared that the highest quality GPS signal should be available as well.
Consider electrical telegraphy the 19th-century equivalent to modern-day email. While the telegraph (specifically the one developed by Samuel Morse) was already established prior to the Civil War, the network of wires that spanned across the country was greatly improved during wartime. The telegraph allowed information to travel faster than horseback, providing troops with essential orders from faraway command centers. Technology like the telegraph made the Civil War one of the first “high-tech” conflicts in history.
Although research into what is now known as penicillin stems back to the late-1800s (its full discovery occurring in the 1920s), the antibiotic wasn’t put into use until World War II, where it helped treat soldiers infected wounds. The medicine, one of the safest, is still commonly used today to fight bacteria.
Radar, Microwave Oven
Originally an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging, this system uses radio waves to find speed, altitude, range, and direction of moving objects like planes, ground vehicles, missiles, etc. While developed before World War II, research and development for military purposes. The concept is simple: A dish or antenna send radio waves that bounces off the object, returning them to where the transmission originated (which is then used to calculate the object’s positioning). Today, it’s used for a variety of purposes, both military and civilian, including air traffic control and weather forecasting. (Inadvertently, it was discovered that microwaves transmitted from radar equipment during WWII could also cook food, which led to the post-war creation of the microwave oven.)
Air travel may be much maligned these days, but it could have been worse if it wasn’t for the invention of the jet engine. Although research started in the 1920s, it didn’t get put into use until the Second World War by both the Allies and the Axis powers (the German Messerschmitt ME 262 is considered the world’s first jet-powered fighter). Because air warfare played a huge role in World War II, it also accelerated the development and advancement of things such as pressurized cabins (planes were beginning to fly higher) and air traffic control – things that play a key role in modern-day air travel.
Nylon is a durable synthetic material that was developed by DuPont as an alternative to natural fabrics that became scarce due to World War II (silk, for example, was reserved for use by the military as part of civilian wartime efforts). Today, it’s still one of the most heavily used polymers for clothing and other goods. Besides nylon, World War II also saw advancements in synthetic rubber and synthetic fuel.
Canning, as a means of food preservation, can be traced back to Napoleon times, and was used by both the military and civilians. But canned foods became essential items in the Civil War and World War I, as they were efficient in feeding soldiers. Canning became important for civilians in World War II due to food rationing. Canned goods still line the aisles of today’s supermarkets, although many health experts warn they don’t offer nutritional benefits due to the salt content.
When the military called for a new light motor vehicle, it received submissions from several manufacturers. Ultimately, the contract was awarded to the Willys-Overland Motors company, which created the Willys MB, the predecessor to the modern-day Jeep Wrangler (although politics, legalities, and trademark disputes made the history much more convoluted than that). Regardless, many of Jeep’s signature designs can be traced back to the military Jeep of the 1940s.
Wristwatches were important in the military, as many officers used them to strategically plan their maneuvers. Today, wristwatches aren’t only functional devices, but fashionable accessories.
After 45 years, Green Beret faces his past in Vietnam — part five
Posted On April 29, 2020 15:53:28
As we made our way from Saigon to Buon Ma Thuot (or as I knew it, Ban Me Thuot) the low lying farm lands turned into gently rolling foothills covered with coffee fields being tended by local farmers living along the edges, just as the rubber plantations had been during my time before.
Night began to fall and we ran into a series of storms at the edge of the Central Highlands – my mind flipped and I remembered how darkness and rain actually became a good thing as they masked movement and noise and helped us deceive the enemy as to where we were and what we were doing.
The rain slackened as we approached Ban Me Thuot and the city streets were covered in arches of lights – there must have been a festival or something, but everyone joked it was a gala reception for my return. The wide avenue we entered on led us to the central roundabout with a centerpiece that had a majestic arch with a T-55 Soviet Tank celebrating the “liberation” of the city by North Vietnamese forces.
After a bit of confusion finding a hotel we settled on one directly on the roundabout and then wandered over to the monument. Some local teenagers were taking pictures of each other and then asked if we would take a group photo for them. People are the same the world over – enjoying life and making the most of it.
I marveled at how much BMT had grown and flourished over the years and how it has become a very metropolitan area now as opposed to the small sleepy city I remembered.
The next morning we drove out to East Field where our camp had been. The camp was long gone, the buildings torn down and the jungle had reclaimed the site. The small dirt and oil airfield that was adjacent to the camp has become a regional airport, much like those in any small city in the US. The hill southeast of the camp that we used for a radio relay sight was clearly visible and brought back memories that are recounted in the video. Some of them funny and some of them a bit scary. The red clay dirt is still there – I think I’ve still got a pair of jungle fatigues with that clay imbedded in them at home in Fayetteville.
As I stood near where our camp had been, with butterflies in the background, memories came back of past times – as a friend said the other day, some good and some bad. That’s what life is made of, good and bad memories and it’s how we deal with them that counts.
Follow Richard Rice’s 10-part journey:
This article originally appeared on GORUCK. Follow @GORUCK on Twitter.
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Here’s a List of 30 Inventions between 1800 and 1899
1. Invention: Battery
Date of Invention: 1800
Invented by: Alessandro Volta
Volta’s electric battery. Source: GuidoB/wikimwdia commons
A battery is a chemical reactor that stores energy, which can be used in electrifying. As a chemical reactor, the primary function of a battery is the production of electrons mobilized to go through or power an external device. Nowadays, batteries are needed everywhere and have been a better invention for the present world.
The known inventor of the battery is Alessandro Volta. He was born in Como, Italy, in the year 1745. Born into a wealthy home, he grew up to become a trained and physicist and chemist.
His batteries were made with Copper and Zinc discs and were parted by clothing soaked in saltwater. Electricity was conducted into the wires connected to both discs, through a stable current.
He was the first scientist to patent the battery. Through his invention, he became the pioneer of power generation and proved that electricity could be generated through a chemical medium. Other designs followed after the battery, but he is mostly recognized for inventing the battery.
2. Invention: Stethoscope
Date of Invention: 1816
Inventor: Rene Laennec
Stethoscope. Source: pinterest
When medical practitioners needed to check the heartbeat of patients, they were only limited to placing their ears carefully on a patient’s heart. There was no means of auscultation, and the old medium always does not yield the desired results.
In 1816, a man named Rene Laennec thought of how to listen carefully to the sounds in the chest. He couldn’t use the usual method to examine his fat patient. He started by rolling a sheet of paper into a tube shape, placing each end on the patient’s heart and ear.
The sheet of paper was later replaced with a hollow tube made from wood over the years. The wooden tube was changed, and improvements were made in this invention. Rene named his device the Stethoscope.
Today, a stethoscope has become a very vital piece for doctors. Modern Day stethoscope can amplify the sounds in the chest.
3. Invention: Matches
Date of Invention: 1826
Inventor: John Walker
Matches. Source: jef-infojef/Wikimedia Commons
Before this invention, lighting the fire was almost an unknown thing for everyone. The fire has been in existence for thousands of years, but no one knew how to create or start one ideally. The first idea of lighting a fire was brought about by a British Pharmacist, John Walker, in 1826.
This invention came by accident when Walker had to scrape off the coated gob while mixing chemicals with his mixing stick. The mixing stick struck against the hearth in his house and boom he cracked it. Walker sold his first set of matches in 1827, packed in a box, and came with a sandpaper piece.
Every other development came under this idea.
4. Invention: Microphone
Date of Invention: 1827
Inventor: Charles Wheatstone
Microphone. Source: Fiddlersgreen
Charles Wheatstone is formally known as a physicist and a father of many devices. He hailed from Gloucester, England, and was born 6th February 1802. Later after he invented the microphone, he became a professor of philosophy in 1834.
His invention was based on how to transmit sound waves through mediums from one place to another, regardless of the distance. His curiosity to come up with something to convey sound leads to the microphone being invented. A microphone can propagate weak sound waves to become audible.
Wheatstone is a household name in the field of physics. He would later contribute to many inventions.
5. Invention: Typewriter
Date of Invention: 1829
Inventor: W. A Burt
Typewriter. Source: Britannica
The first generation of the typewriter was invented in 1829 at that time, there were no other means by which people could write letters, or document anything other than writing. A typewriter is a manual machine with keyboards, used for typing out data.
An American inventor named William Burt was the first to patent the typewriter. From the start of the 1850s, the typewriter became very useful in offices and media houses. It would later be improved by contributions like Samuel Soule, Carlos Glidden, and Christopher Sholes.
They were the principal contributors to the booming success of the invention, after developing varieties of the typewriter.
6. Invention: Sewing Machine
Date of Invention: 1830
Inventor: Barthelemy Thimonnier
Sewing machine. Source: ABC
During the period revolution was still on in France, the year is 1830. In a city located in the south of Paris lived a tailor. He was popularly known as Bart. He developed the first mechanical tool known as the sewing machine.
The machine at the time was a hooked tambour needle operated in a chain stitch form. It was later rejected, and Bart’s workshop was destroyed after he began executing large contracts for the military.
Usually, local tailors at that time made money from stitching with bare hands the only crude means they had to settle for. The fear of losing their jobs to the mechanical machine made them hate Bart’s invention. This was the first type of sewing machine ever designed. The further upgrade was also recognized after Bart’s sewing machine.
7. Invention: Mechanical Reaper
Date of Invention: 1831
Inventor: Cyrus McCormick
Mechanical reaper. Source: Britannica
Before the 18th century began, farming was a bit tedious because everyone had to work with their hands. With crude handmade hoes, the farming process was always long and required energy until the industrial revolution came to man’s rescue.
Born in a remote farm in Virginia, the USA, in 1809, Cyrus McCormick grew up on the farm with his parents. Harvesting of crops took a lot of time, and a change was needed. He took over his father’s project decades after he tried inventing the mechanical machine to replace sickles.
In 1831 Cyrus successfully built a reaper that was efficient to replace hundreds of labor.
8. Invention: Corn Planter
Date of Invention: 1834
Inventor: Henry Blair
Corn reaper. Source: pinterest
Henry Blair was the known inventor of the corn reaper, the mechanical machine that hastened the planting of maize. Born in 1807, he grew up in Maryland as the dorm of a farmer. He is the second African American to patent an invention and is being referred to as a free man.
The popularity came in1834 when the corn planter he invented saved time and energy of planting for a long time. The corn planter helped control weed as well. Henry had to declare himself a free man before he could patent the corn planter.
9. Invention: Dishwasher
Date of Invention: 1886
Inventor: Josephine Cochran
Dishwasher. Source: Wikipedia
This invention was birthed from a personal interest, and it sold throughout the world after drawing much attention. The patent inventor, Josephine Cochran, was born into a skillful and wealthy home. She was 47 when she thought of creating a solution for her cracked dishes.
She and her husband were known for entertaining visitors most times she needed a solution to her plates, always breaking and getting cracked. Her friend aided her in developing a machine to wash dirty dishes instead of paying her staff and still losing plates.
The first set of dishwashers produced by Cochran was named after her. It later gained fame through the help of her businessman husband.
10. Invention: Bicycle
Date of Invention: 1839
Inventor: Kirkpatrick Macmillan
Bicycle. Source: Graces Guide
Before the introduction of wheel machines, there were no mechanical means of moving around or traveling. Kirkpatrick Macmillan completed the invention of the first pedal bicycle. The idea behind his design was a hobbyhorse he admired.
He was brought up in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and served as a blacksmith apprentice under his father. He acquired a few skills that allowed him to build a stable bicycle. After successfully riding through 14 miles in one hour, he wasn’t ready to patent the first pedal bicycle for business purposes.
Other pedal bicycles made after this first design help unleashed the potential of the bike as a means of transport.
11. Invention: Mechanical Calculator
Date of Invention: 1932
Inventor: Charles Babbage
Mechanical calculator. Source: Interesting engineering
The history of calculators can be traced way back from 1822 when Babbage began with a small model of calculator. His invention could sum up, differentiate or multiply numbers and could print mathematical tables. The machine was called a difference machine at that time.
It took him three years to come up with the difference machine. After the difference machine was built successfully, the British government approached him to help develop some similar machine. This project took him several years, just like a usual engineering project.
The said project was halted when there was a shortage of funds. But then, a working portion was already made. The complete project would later weigh about 13 metric tons. For this invention, Charles Babbage was often regarded as one of the fathers of computer.
12. Invention: Telegraph
Date of invention: 1834
Inventor: Samuel Morse
Telegraph. Source: Hp. Baumeler/Wikimedia Commons
The first telegraph was built by Samuel Morse, an invention that would later be worked on by other inventors. Morse was born in 1791 and was 43 years when he created the first telegraph. During the industrial revolution era, there was a need to access long-distance messages.
The telegraph was the first machine to transmit signals over to stations through a wired connection. Morse is an American, and his first telegraph was sent from Washington D.C. to Maryland. The telegraph had been accepted across Europe, in the year 1866, telegraph lines were laid across the Atlantic connecting Europe.
Recently, the availability of the internet, fax machine, and the telephone have limited telegraph usage. But it was the pioneer means of passing information, and it has paved the way for communication innovations.
13. Invention: Postage Stamp
Date of invention: 1837
Inventor: Rowland Hill
Postage stamp. Source: British Library
Born and brought up in England, Rowland Hill was working as a schoolmaster when he invented the postage stamps. After a few years of authenticating his innovation, the world’s first stamp was issued in 1840 in England. Rowland was later knighted as a reward for his invention.
His first stamp rates were judged on weight instead of size. Before the postage stamp came into existence, older means were not trusted to get the job done. He first described his postage stamp in his own words when summoned before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry.
14. Invention: Gyroscope
Date of invention: 1852
Inventor: Leon Foucault
Gyroscope. Source: Kenyon College
Leon Foucault was a French Physicist born in 1819. He’s the first to patent the gyroscope, a design that could tell the plane of earth’s rotation depending on its location’s latitude. He was born in 1819, and in 1852, he invented the first known gyroscope.
It took him some time, but his approach was clear he made a gyroscope out of a swinging rotating ball with a weighty rim. The period of rotation was dependent on the latitude of the location. The technique behind the investigation was almost not easy to prove as frictional forces slowed down the spinning system.
This idea is common among kids with a toy gyroscope.
15. Invention: Airship
Date of Invention: 1852
Inventor: Henri Giffard
Airship. Source: ThoughtCo
Born in France on the 8th of February 1825, Giffard grew up to become an engineer and a father of a few innovations. He made the first airship, after which other developments followed. A sufficient gas powered the airship with a propeller.
The size of this first airship consists of 125meter in length, 25 meters in diameter. The engine is a 3 horsepower steam type. The steam engine was joined to the propeller and flew seventeen miles at 5 meters/hour.
Over the years, different designs and structures of airships started appearing. Giffard owned this invention and became one useful surveillance craft for the military a few years later.
16. Invention: Glider
Date of Invention: 1854
Inventor: George Cayley
Glider. Source: fiddlersgreen
George Cayley was born and brought up in Yorkshire, England. He is the first known engineer and inventor to patent the glider. His aeronautical engineering skills made things easier for him during that time.
His first glider was a webbed aircraft built like an image of some bird. He saw the need to patent his invention after successfully flying the glider over a few miles with someone in the plane at the time of flight.
He died shortly after patenting the glider, and after then, various developers saw the need to improve the glider’s design. Popular contributors after George made the first glider was Otto Lilienthal and the Wright brothers.
17. Invention: Vacuum flask
Date of Invention: 1892
Inventor: James Dewar
Vacuum flask. Source: BBC
Vacuum flasks were popular for preserving cold liquids. The inventor, James Dewar, specializes in cryogenics, the science of cold. In recent times the vacuum flask has been a valuable part of almost everyone, helping us keep our liquids hot.
Dewar had to prevent cold liquids from evaporating he tried various means using different materials. He ended up designing a vacuum made with a double-walled flask. In-between the wall of both glasses, there’s no room for air.
The vacuum ensured that liquid stored inside the flask maintains its temperature due to the absence of air. Other designs of the vacuum flasks had silver coatings on the vacuum walls to prevent transmission of heat.
18. Invention: Gramophone
Date of Invention: 1887
Inventor: Emile Berliner
Gramophone. Source: Wikipedia
Emile Berliner wasn’t an American, as some people think. He moved from his country Germany to Washington D.C. Long before the music started recording on a disc, there was no means of having a personal music player to play your best songs repeatedly.
Emile made a stop to recording on cylinders in 1887, the year he also patented it. He made songs on discs and complemented it with a gramophone for playing the disc. A needle-like object attached to the arm of the gramophone transmitted the sounds and vibrations to the gramophone.
His gramophone gained more fame after he created a company and convinced artistes to record with his systems.
19. Invention: Traffic Light
Date of Invention: 1868
Inventor: John Knight
Traffic lights. Source: Science ABC
It was a year to forget for Londoners as the number of injuries and death caused by accidents was more than 2000. A railway worker, John Knight, proposed a signaling system on transport routes. His proposal was backed by his invention of the first traffic lights ever made.
The lights became a good bargain For Knight and the government. The traffic lights were first used at George and Bridge Streets. The lights consist of red and green color types for stop and proceed respective signaling.
These lights didn’t last till 1870, but they were a stepping stone for the recently improved technology in modern-day transportation.
20. Invention: Telephone
Date of Invention: 1876
Inventor: Alexander Graham Bell
Telephone. Source: IMGBIN
One of the most remarkable inventions that changed the world and aided smooth communication between people. Graham Bell was born in Scotland but became an American later in his life. He is the first scientist to receive the patent for inventing the telephone.
Despite his countless number of inventions, Bell loved to be regarded as a teacher of the deaf. He was born in 1847 to a teacher and an impaired organist mother. Growing up, he didn’t see himself as a bright student but had a talent for solving problems.
He once made a husk remover for his friend’s dad, who works on a wheat farm.
21. Invention: Carpet Washer
Date of Invention: 1876
Inventor: Melville Bissell
Carpet washer. Source: Bissell
Melville was born in Michigan and was a trader at the time he invented the carpet washer. He owns a tableware shop with his wife, Anna. Before the industrial revolution, floors were made of wooden material or cement, so it was easy to swap and clean with brooms.
When carpets and rugs started selling, and the carpet beating was such a hard task, there was a need to design a cleaner for them. Melville’s shop was laid with carpet, and all the goods came in wooden boxes that have sawdust in them. The sawdust would litter everywhere, and it became a thing of concern for Anna.
Melville made a carpet cleaner for her so that their business could run smoothly. He made her an opened wooden box with wheels that are being pushed with the help of a long handle.
22. Invention: Motorcycle
Date of Invention: 1885
Inventor: Gottlieb Daimler
Motorcycle. Source: Wired
The development of the first combustion engine that ran on two wheels and two other supporting wheels was the work of German engineer Gottlieb. He patented his invention of powering a wooden vehicle with the combustion engine on wheels in 1885. The two added wheels for support made people condemn the motorcycle.
The combustion engine was a four-stroke gasoline type. Production of motorcycles followed shortly after the invention of the bicycle. Gottlieb’s son was first to ride the motorcycle for nearly 10km. The support wheels on the first motorcycle would later be removed after recent improvements from other contributors.
23. Invention: Escalator
Date of Invention: 1892
Inventor: Jesse Reno
Escalator. Source: untappedcities.com
The history of escalators could be traced back to the amusement park, where it first started for amusement purposes. A similar design that relates to Reno’s escalator was a machine designed in 2859. His escalator is a transport aid machine that works on a conveyor belt.
Its primary function is to move people from one height or distance to the other. Jesse Reno received the due credit for inventing the machine like this in 1892, a time where the industrial revolution was shaping Europe and America. It promoted urbanization and productivity as it is widely used today.
Reno’s novelty ride at Coney Island was created in 1895, designed from the original design.
24. Invention: Roller Coaster
Date of Invention: 1898
Inventor: Edwin Prescott
Roller coaster. Source: popsci
One of the major attractions in any amusement park to date is still the roller coaster. Some kids usually have the best time of their lives when they’re on a rollercoaster ride. The history of this fun machine is a simple science of centrifugal force, coined out by Edwin Prescott, a specialist in mechanics who hails from South Dakota.
It was first named the centrifugal railway when it was invented in 1898. It was dependent on centrifugal force and a loop that only allows 4 to 5 riders every 5 minutes.
The improved machines followed suit after Edwin’s.
25. Invention: Diesel Engine
Date of Invention: 1893
Inventor: Rudolf Diesel
Diesel engine. Source: DieselNet
Having studied engineering at the Munich Polytechnic Institute, Rudolf Diesel was a talented German engineer who grew up in France. His initial aim of inventing the diesel engine was to assist small business owners. Today, diesel engines are preferred in some parts of the world for major automobile producers.
The majority of the trucks and heavy-duty vehicles park on diesel engines, even plants. It is widely accepted by industrialists nowadays. Before inventing the diesel engine, he once worked as a thermodynamics engineer in France. This invention took helped the 1st and second industrial revolution era.
It cannot be erased from the history of innovations, save for Diesel’s death.
26. Invention: Automobile
Date of Invention: 1885
Inventor: Karl Benz
Automobile. Source: Pinterest
One of the world’s largest automobile brand to date started in Germany and are still relevant. The history of vehicles or automobiles could be traced back to 1885 when Karl Benz took it upon himself to design a life-changing motor, powered by a combustion engine. The patent for inventing the automobile was received in 1886.
He built all the parts of the automobile himself, including the spark plugs, carburetor, gear, clutch, ignition, and water radiator.
The first automobile to be produced by Karl Benz was a three-wheel vehicle called Motorwagen. The combustion engine depended on hydrocarbon to start. He also built the first-ever known four-wheeled vehicle in 1891 and started his business, which he called Benz and Company. He’s the first recognized, licensed driver in the world.
27. Invention: Barbed Wire
Date of Invention: 1868
Inventor: Michael Kelly
Barbed wire. Source: Wikipedia
Recent tales about how the barbed wire came into existence were traced to different inventors and contributors, but one known man was the brain behind this innovation. Michael Kelly was granted a patent of the barbed wire invention in 1868. Nowadays, barbed wires are used for fencing houses more than farmlands.
Barbed wires were handy in the 1800s it changed things in the west in its early days. Wires were used for fencing farmlands when wooden fences were expensive to afford.
It was essential to fence one’s farmland back then else, livestock will eat up the crops. On the other hand, lumber was short on supply deforestation would be on a high demand if wooden fences continued. Kelly turned things around with his invention.
The method of fencing was changed from wooden fences to wired fencing when barbed wire became common in the west.
28. Invention: Stapler
Date of Invention: 1841
Inventor: Samuel Slocum
Stapler. Source: Wikipedia
Pins are not only used for pushing threads into clothes, when the first set of conventional pins were made in 1835, little did we know that everything came to fall in place for today’s purpose. Slocum invented the pin making machine the pins came in solid heads and were used to tack a joint or make something firm. His eagerness to get pins stocked to papers led to his staple invention.
The essence of making the stapler was to create a machine that forces pins into paper from a grooved in a plate. The first stapler looks very different from what we know now. It was solely used for holding papers together when papers became everyone’s writing material.
29. Invention: Portland Cement
Date of Invention: 1824
Inventor: Joseph Aspdin
Portland cement. Source: Edubilla
Joseph Aspdin is an Englishman who grew up as a bricklayer to become a builder later in life. He is the first to patent a chemical process known for making Portland cement. This is one of the inventions that shook the world it came at the right time it was needed.
Portland cement is one essential substance needed for every construction. The chemical process involved stirring clay and limestone together to almost 1,400 degrees centigrade. It is later grinded to powder and mixed with sand to make a concrete, mix with sand and gravel.
The first major construction built with Portland cement is the Thames Tunnel, later it was used to build the London sewage system. After these, it was widely accepted.
30. Invention: Tin Can
Date of Invention: 1810
Inventor: Peter Durand
Tin can. Source: Interesting Enginnering
The tin can was first invented in 1810 it is surprising and unusual how well it has helped in food preservation and drinks storage in modern days. Little did Peter Durand knew he was doing the world a great favor when he first invented the tin can. The first company to produce tin can in quantities came after it was first developed.
John Hall and Bryan Dorkin took credit for mass production of the tin can, but they weren’t adequate to go round. Decades later, Henry Evans made a faster machine that could double the output. Durand’s tin can was hard to open, except if you have a hammer to bust it open.
Subsequent production had to focus on thinner walls and a key can opener that can still be found in modern cans like that of sardines.
The dates listed in this section refer to the earliest evidence of an invention found and dated by archaeologists (or in a few cases, suggested by indirect evidence). Dates are often approximate and change as more research is done, reported and seen. Older examples of any given technology are found often. The locations listed are for the site where the earliest solid evidence has been found, but especially for the earlier inventions, there is little certainty how close that may be to where the invention took place.
Lower Paleolithic Edit
The Lower Paleolithic period lasted over 3 million years, and corresponds to the human species prior to the emergence of Homo sapiens. The original divergence between humans and chimpanzees occurred 13 (Mya), however interbreeding continued until as recently as 4 Ma, with the first species clearly belonging to the human (and not chimpanzee) lineage being Australopithecus anamensis. This time period is characterized as an ice age with regular periodic warmer periods – interglacial episodes.
- 3.3-2.6 Mya: Stone tools – found in present-day Kenya, they are so old that only a pre-human species could have invented them.  The otherwise earliest known stone tools (Oldowan) were found in Ethiopia developed perhaps by Australopithecus garhi or Homo habilis
- 2.3 Mya: Earliest likely control of fire and cooking, by Homo habilis
- 1.76 Mya: Advanced (Acheulean) stone tools in Kenya by Homo erectus
- 1.5 Mya: Bone tools in Africa. 
- 900-40 kya: Boats. 
- 500 kya: Hafting in South Africa. 
- 400 kya: Pigments in Zambia
- 400-300 kya: Spears in Germany likely by Homo heidelbergensis
- 350-150 kya: Estimated origin of language
Middle Paleolithic Edit
The dawn of Homo sapiens around 300 kya coincides with the start of the Middle Paleolithic period. Towards the middle of this 250,000-year period, humans begin to migrate out of Africa, and the later part of the period shows the beginning of long-distance trade, religious rites and other behavior associated with Behavioral modernity.
- c. 320 kya: The trade and long-distance transportation of resources (e.g. obsidian), use of pigments, and possible making of projectile points in Kenya 
- 279 kya: Early stone-tipped projectile weapons in Ethiopia 
- c. 200 kya: Glue in Central Italy by Neanderthals.  More complicated compound adhesives developed by Homo sapiens have been found from c. 70 ka Sibudu, South Africa  and have been regarded as a sign of cognitive advancement. 
- 170-83 kya: Clothing (among anatomically modern humans in Africa).  Some other evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. 
- 164-47 kya: Heat treating of stone blades in South Africa. 
- 135-100 kya: Beads in Israel and Algeria
- 100 kya: Compound paints made in South Africa 
- 100 kya: Funerals (in the form of burial) in Israel 
- 90 kya: Harpoons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
- 77 kya: Beds in South Africa 
- 70-60 kya: Oldest arrows (and evidence of bow-and-arrow technology), and oldest needle, at Sibudu, South Africa 
Upper Paleolithic to Early Mesolithic Edit
50 ka has been regarded by some as the beginning of behavioral modernity, defining the Upper Paleolithic period, which lasted nearly 40,000 years (though some research dates the beginning of behavioral modernity earlier to the Middle Paleolithic). This is characterized by the widespread observation of religious rites, artistic expression and the appearance of tools made for purely intellectual or artistic pursuits.
- 49-30 ka: Ground stone tools – fragments of an axe in Australia date to 49-45 ka, more appear in Japan closer to 30 ka, and elsewhere closer to the Neolithic. 
- 47 ka: The oldest-known mines in the world are from Swaziland, and extracted hematite for the production of the red pigment ochre. 
- 45 ka: Shoes, as evidenced by changes in foot bone morphology in Eurasia  Bark sandals), dated to 10 to 9 ka were found in Fort Rock Cave in the US state of Oregon in 1938.  Oldest leather shoe (Areni-1 shoe), 5.5 ka. 
- 44–42 ka: Tally sticks (see Lebombo bone) in Swaziland
- 43.7 ka: Cave painting in Indonesia
- 37 ka: Mortar and pestle in Southwest Asia
- 36 ka: Weaving – Indirect evidence from Czechia, Georgia and Moravia.  The earliest actual piece of woven cloth was found in Çatalhöyük, Turkey. 
- 35 ka: Flute in Germany 
- 33-10 ka: Star chart in France and Spain
- 28 ka: Rope
- 28 ka: Phallus in Germany 
- 26 ka: Ceramics in Europe 
- 23 ka: Domestication of the Dog in Siberia. 
- 19 ka: Bullroarer in Ukraine
- 16 ka: Pottery in China
- 14.5 ka: Bread in Jordan 
The end of the Last Glacial Period ("ice age") and the beginning of the Holocene around 11.7 ka coincide with the Agricultural Revolution, marking the beginning of the agricultural era, which persisted until the industrial revolution.
Neolithic and Late Mesolithic Edit
During the Neolithic period, lasting 8400 years, stone remained the predominant material for toolmaking, although copper and arsenic bronze were developed towards the end of this period.
- 12-11 ka: Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
- 12–11 ka: Domestication of sheep in Southwest Asia (followed shortly by pigs, goats and cattle)
- 11-8 ka: Domestication of rice in China
- 11 ka: Constructed stone monument – Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey
- 9000 BC: Mudbricks, and clay mortar in Jericho. 
- 8000–7500 BC: Proto-city – large permanent settlements, such as Tell es-Sultan (Jericho) and Çatalhöyük, Turkey. 
- 7000 BC: Alcohol fermentation – specifically mead, in China 
- 7000 BC: Sled dog and Dog sled, in Siberia. 
- 7000 BC: Tanned leather in Mehrgarh, Pakistan.
- 6500 BC: Evidence of lead smelting in Çatalhöyük, Turkey
- 6000 BC: Kiln in Mesopotamia (Iraq) 
- 6th millennium BC: Irrigation in Khuzistan, Iran
- 6000-3200 BC: Proto-writing in present day Egypt, Iraq, Serbia, China and Pakistan. 
- 5000 BC: Copper smelting in Serbia
- 5000 BC: Seawall in Israel
- 5th millennium BC: Lacquer in China 
- 5000 BC: Cotton thread, in Mehrgarh, Pakistan, connecting the copper beads of a bracelet. 
- 5000–4500 BC: Rowing oars in China 
- 4500–3500 BC: Lost-wax casting in Israel or the Indus Valley
- 4400 BC: Fired bricks in China. 
- 4000 BC: Probable time period of the first diamond-mines in the world, in Southern India. 
- Around 4000 BC: Paved roads, in and around the Mesopotamian city of Ur, Iraq. 
- 4000 BC: Plumbing. The earliest pipes were made of clay, and are found at the Temple of Bel at Nippur in Babylonia.  Earthen pipes were later used in the Indus Valley c. 2700 BC for a city-scale urban drainage system,  and more durable copper drainage pipes appeared in Egypt, by the time of the construction of the Pyramid of Sahure at Abusir, c.2400 BCE. 
- 4000–3500 BC: Wheel: potter's wheels in Mesopotamia and wheeled vehicles in Mesopotamia (Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe (Cucuteni–Trypillia culture). 
- 3630 BC: Silk garments (sericulture) in China 
- 3500 BC: Domestication of the horse in the Eurasian Steppes. 
- 3500 BC: Wine as general anesthesia in Sumer. 
- 3500 BC: Seal (emblem) invented around in the Near East, at the contemporary sites of Uruk in southern Mesopotamia and slightly later at Susa in south-western Iran during the Proto-Elamite period, and they follow the development of stamp seals in the Halaf culture or slightly earlier. 
- 3400-3100 BC: Tattoos in southern Europe 
Bronze Age Edit
The beginning of bronze-smelting coincides with the emergence of the first cities and of writing in the Ancient Near East and the Indus Valley. The Bronze Age is taken as a 2000-year long period starting in 3300 BC and ending in 1300 BC.
- 3300 BC: City in Sumer.
- 3300 BC: Writing – Cuneiform in Sumer, Mesopotamia (Iraq) 
- 3300 BC: Copper-tin bronze in Sumer.
- Before 3200 BC: dry Latrines in the city of Uruk, Iraq, with later dry squat Toilets, that added raised fired brick foot platforms, and pedestal toilets, all over clay pipe constructed drains. 
- 3200 BC: Sailing in ancient Egypt
- Before 3000 BC: Devices functionally equivalent to dice, in the form of flat two-sided throwsticks, are seen in the Egyptian game of Senet.  Later, terracotta dice resembling modern ones were used at the Indus Valley site of Mohenjo-Daro (Pakistan). 
- 3000 BC: Tin extraction in Central Asia
- 3000 BC: Bronze in Mesopotamia 
- 3000-2560 BC: Papyrus in Egypt 
- 3000 BC: Comb in Persia. 
- 3000 BC: Reservoir in Girnar, Indus Valley (India). 
- 3000 BC: Distillation in Indus Valley (modern-day Pakistan). 
- 3000 BC: Sea-going ships by Austronesians (modern-day Southern China, Taiwan) 
- 3000 BC: Receipt in Ancient Mesopotamia (Iraq) 
- 2800 BC: Latest possible data for invention of ploughing, Kalibangan, Indus Valley (India). 
- c. 2600 BC: Planned city in Indus Valley (India, Pakistan). 
- By 2650 BC: The Ruler, or Measuring rod, in the subdivided Nippur, copper rod. Shell, Terracotta, Copper, and Ivory rulers were in use by the Indus Valley Civilisation in what today is Pakistan, and North West India, prior to 1500 BCE. 
- c. 2600 BC: Public sewage and sanitation systems in Indus Valley sites such as Mohenjo-Daro and Rakhigarhi. 
- c. 2600 BC: Public bath in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley (Pakistan). 
- 2600 BC: Levee in Indus Valley (India, Pakistan). 
- By 2556 BC: Docks in either Egypt or the Indus Valley. A harbor structure has been excavated in Wadi al-Jarf, which is believed to have been developed during the reign of the Pharaoh Khufu (2589–2566 B.C).  A competing claim is from Lothal dockyard in India,  constructed at some point between 2400-2000 BC  however, more precise dating does not exist.
- 3000-2500 BC: Rhinoplasty in Egypt. 
- 2500 BC: Puppetry in the Indus Valley. 
- 2500 BC: Dictionary in Mesopotamia
- c. 2400 BC: Copper pipes, the Pyramid of Sahure, and adjoining temple complex at Abusir, was discovered to have a network of copper drainage pipes. 
- after 2400 BC: Protractor in Lothal, Indus Valley (Present day India). 
- after 2400 BC: Weighing scales in Lothal, Indus Valley (India). 
- 2400 BC: Touchstone in the Indus Valley site of Banawali (India). 
- Around 2000 BC: Water clock by at least the old Babylonian period (c. 2000 – c. 1600 BC),  but possibly earlier from Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley. 
- 2000 BC: Musical notation in Sumer
- 2000 BC: Chariot in Russia and Kazakhstan
- 2000 BC: Glass in Ancient Egypt
- 2000 BC: Fountain in Lagash, Sumer (modern Iraq)
- By at least 1500 BC: Sundial in Babylonia.
- 1500 BC: Seed drill in Babylonia
- 1500 BC: Scissors in Ancient Egypt
- before 1400 BC: Rubber, Mesoamerican ballgame. 
- 1300 BC: Lathe in Ancient Egypt 
- 1400-1200 BC: Concrete in Tiryns (Mycenaean Greece).  Waterproof concrete was later developed by the Assyrians in 688 BC,  and the Romans developed concretes that could set underwater.  The Romans later used concrete extensively for construction from 300 BC to 476 AD. 
Iron Age Edit
The Late Bronze Age collapse occurs around 1300-1175 BC, extinguishing most Bronze-Age Near Eastern cultures, and significantly weakening the rest. This is coincident with the complete collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation. This event is followed by the beginning of the Iron Age. We define the Iron Age as ending in 510 BC for the purposes of this article, even though the typical definition is region-dependent (e.g. 510 BC in Greece, 322 BC in India, 200 BC in China), thus being an 800-year period.
It's worth noting the uncertainty in dating several Indian developments between 600 BC and 300 AD, due to the tradition that existed of editing existing documents (such as the Sushruta Samhita and Arthashastra) without specifically documenting the edit. Most such documents were canonized at the start of the Gupta empire (mid-3rd century AD).
NASA is synonymous with space exploration, astronauts and moon landings. This federal agency is made up of a team of scientists who are constantly studying and experimenting to make advances in the fields of aeronautics and aerospace research. That quest for innovation has led to the invention of some common products that many of us use every day. The list may surprise you.
Mylar, a heat-reflecting plastic shield coated in aluminum, was designed by NASA in the 1950&rsquos to protect spacecrafts from the sun&rsquos heat. The intense fluctuations in cold and heat experienced in space made it extremely difficult to regulate the temperature of the space shuttle and the astronauts on board. Mylar insulation solved the issue. An integral component in spaceship and spacesuit design, Mylar has been incorporated into our lives in a variety of ways. Most insulation used by residential and commercial contractors is Mylar based. A somewhat less expected use of the product involves marathons. The silver blankets that you see wrapped around finishers of marathons all over the world is made from Mylar. The insulation provides the perfect solution for exhausted athletes who can quickly develop hypothermia after completing a race.
When they were looking for a self-contained, portable drill to cut core samples on the moon, NASA reached out to Black and Decker. The company had already designed a line of cordless tools, but the products needed a little tweaking. The push from NASA was enough to refine the quality and battery life of these power tools. Black and Decker used the improved technology to create the first cordless vacuum, which they named the Dustbuster.
Invented by a former NASA engineer, this amped up water gun quickly became a fan favorite of adolescent boys everywhere. Lonnie Johnson worked on NASA&rsquos Galileo mission to Jupiter before leaving the agency to develop the Super Soaker. These incredibly powerful water cannons helps kids all over the country drench their opponents faster and further than ever before.
Also known as Temper Foam, this mattress innovation was stumbled on when NASA was contracted to improve crash cushioning and seat cushions for airplane pilots and passengers. With extensive commercial uses, Memory foam was initially designed to make landings safer for astronauts. Doctors use this absorbent foam to reduce pressure on body parts and reduce friction on prosthetic limbs.
Scratch resistant glasses
Space can be a dusty and dirty place. NASA engineers needed to find a way to keep those dirt particles from destroying the astronaut&rsquos space helmets and equipment. A substance called diamond-like carbon, or DLC, was developed to provide a protective film over the helmet visors. The Foster-Grant sunglass company recognized that this innovation could improve the quality of their glasses. They teamed up with NASA and created a plastic coating that creates a barrier which is 10 times more scratch-resistant than traditional plastic lenses.
Astronauts spend extensive periods of time in zero-gravity environments. Long term weightlessness can lead to muscle atrophy and a decrease in bone density. For this reason, astronauts must exercise regularly and extensively while in space. NASA engineers created treadmills and other workout machines to allow the astronauts to work out while on their space missions. The cardiovascular equipment that we all use at the gym was developed based on NASA&rsquos inventions.
When you think of heat-seeking missiles, you don&rsquot typically think of braces. NASA developed transparent polycrystalline alumina (TPA), the material that invisible braces are made from, when searching for an incredibly durable yet lightweight component to help track missiles it was building. A company called Ceradyne used that technology to create the braces that are seen on teenagers all over the country. Stronger than steel and translucent, this aesthetically pleasing invention is a big improvement over the traditional stainless steel &lsquometal mouth&rsquo look of its predecessor.
Infrared ear thermometer
The invention of the infrared sensors created by NASA used to get temperature readings of celestial objects in space was a significant advancement in space research. Medical researchers recognized the value of this technology and used it to develop the optical sensor used in today&rsquos ear thermometers. When placed in the ear, they provide a rapid temperature reading. These thermometers are less invasive and more accurate than the mercury thermometers used in the past.
Water filtration devices have been around since the 1950&rsquos. Bulky and time-consuming, these products were not useful to astronauts on board a space craft. NASA engineers developed a portable and compact device that could kill and filter out any bacteria present in the astronaut&rsquos water supply. These advancements in water filtration are used by companies to provide clean water to millions of people every day.
The next time you reach for your sunglasses or get into a water gun fight, take a second to give a &lsquothanks&rsquo to the NASA engineer who helped invent them.
9 Things Invented For Military Use That You Now Encounter In Everyday Life
A surprising number of military inventions have found their ways into our civilian lives. Here are just a few military-turned-everyday items.
When you rely on the GPS app on that Android phone to keep yourself from getting lost, you’re using the same Global Positioning System satellites set up by the U.S. Department of Defense in the early 1990s. At President Clinton’s behest, the system became available to civilian users in 1996.
2. Freeze drying
Dippin’ Dots, anyone? The technology that’s now used to make freeze-dried ice cream was first used widely during World War II as a way of preserving medical supplies that otherwise required refrigeration.
EpiPens, the auto-injecting syringes that allow you to give yourself a quick shot of epinephrine to stave off an allergic reaction, sprung from a similar device designed to protect soldiers from nerve agents and chemical weapons.
4. Cargo pants
British soldiers began sporting cargo pants in the 1930s because they offered a convenient way to carry vital military gear like ammunition. American troops adopted them just a few years later, and the general public began to wear them in the 1990s.
5. Duct tape
In 1942, duct tape was invented for the military as a way to seal ammunition cases so that water couldn’t get in. Soldiers during WWII quickly realized that it worked well for fixing army gear, too.
You know those canisters you use in order to get gasoline to put in your lawnmower? They were initially developed for the German military in the 1930s.
The Jeep has come a long way since it was first manufactured for American troops to use on reconnaissance missions in WWII. Now celebrating its 70th anniversary, some new models of the world’s oldest SUV come equipped with luxuries such as leather-wrapped steering wheels, DVD players, and touchscreen media consoles.
ENIAC, the first electronic computer that was capable of being programmed to serve many different purposes, was designed for the U.S. military during WWII. The army paid for the computer to be built so they could use it in their Ballistic Research Laboratory.
2. Plastic Surgery
The British sailor Walter Yeo, before and after Harold Gillies’s groundbreaking skin graft. Source: Wikimedia Commons
During the height of World War I, a young British sailor named Walter Yeo was wounded horribly in the 1916 Battle of Jutland. His upper and lower eyelids were burned off. Nearly a year later, he found himself in a facial injury ward started by the father of modern plastic surgery, Harold Gillies.
A native of New Zealand, Gillies had come to Europe as part of the Royal Army Medical Corps. In 1917, he performed what is known as the world’s first plastic surgery, grafting a flap of skin over Yeo’s disfiguring wounds.