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On 13th March, 1962, General Lyman Lemnitzer presented Robert McNamara with a top-secret memo, urging President Kennedy to order a variety of shocking incidents to create a rationale for invading Cuba. Code named Operation Northwoods, the memo suggested that the administration should arrange a terror campaign in Miami and Washington that would create international revulsion against the government of Fidel Castro.
President John F. Kennedy summoned Lyman Lemnitzer to the Oval Office on 16th March, 1962, where they discussed Operation Northwoods. Kennedy rejected the idea and three months later he told Lemnitzer that he was being moved from the Pentagon to become Commander of U.S. Forces in Europe.
The military leaders did not spell out how their exploding bombs would be limited to only wounding, not killing, their unsuspecting victims and how they could be assured that the only casualties would be innocent Cuban refugees, and not American bystanders. But the U.S. military has long been overly confident in its precision.
There is no record of how McNamara responded to this cynical proposal by his top military officers when Lemnitzer met with him that Tuesday afternoon. But the sinister plan, which was codenamed Operation Northwoods, did not receive higher approval. When I asked him about Northwoods, McNamara said, "I have absolutely zero recollection of it. But I sure as hell would have rejected it.... I really can't believe that anyone was proposing such provocative acts in Miami. How stupid!"
Like the president, McNamara regarded Lemnitzer with barely disguised contempt. "McNamara's arrogance was astonishing," said a Lemnitzer aide. "He gave General Lemnitzer very short shrift and treated him like a schoolboy. The general almost stood at attention when he came into the room. Everything was 'Yes, Sir,' and 'No, Sir.' "
Lemnitzer even fell afoul of fashion-conscious Jackie Kennedy. "We all thought well of him until he made the mistake of coming into the White House one Saturday morning in a sport jacket," she contemptuously remarked, underlining how class and culture, not just politics, divided the Kennedy White House from the military.
Lemnitzer, a far-right ideologue whose endorsement of General Edwin Walker's paranoid indoctrination of Army troops had raised the suspicions of Senator William Fulbright's Foreign Relations Committee, was equally dismissive of the Kennedy crowd. He thought their administration "was crippled not only by inexperience but also by arrogance arising from failure to recognize [their] own limitations.... The problem was simply that the civilians would not accept military judgments."
On March 16, three days after his meeting with McNamara, Lemnitzer was summoned by President Kennedy to the Oval Office for a discussion of Cuba strategy that was also attended by McCone, Bundy, Lansdale, and Taylor. At one point the irrepressible Lansdale began holding forth, as usual, on the improving conditions for popular revolt inside Cuba, adding that once the glorious anti-Castro revolution began, "we must be ready to intervene with U.S. forces, if necessary." This brought an immediate reaction from Kennedy, ever alert after the Bay of Pigs about being sandbagged into a military response in Cuba. The group was not proposing that he authorize U.S. military intervention, was it? "No," Taylor and the others immediately rushed to assure him.
But Lemnitzer could not restrain himself. He jumped in at that moment to run Operation Northwoods up the flagpole. The general spared the president the plan's more gruesome brainstorms, such as blowing up people on the streets of Miami and the nation's capital and blaming it on Castro. But he informed Kennedy that the joint Chiefs "had plans for creating plausible pretexts to use force [against Cuba], with the pretexts either attacks on U.S. aircraft or a Cuban action in Latin America for which we would retaliate."
Kennedy was not amused. He fixed Lemnitzer with a hard look and "said bluntly that we were not discussing the use of U.S. military force," according to Lansdale's notes on the meeting. The president icily added that Lemnitzer might find he did not have enough divisions to fight in Cuba, if the Soviets responded to his Caribbean gambit by going to war in Berlin or elsewhere.
Despite the president's cold reaction, the joint Chiefs chairman persisted in his war campaign. About a month after the White House meeting, Lemnitzer convened his fellow service chiefs in "the tank," as the JCS conference room was called. Under his direction, they hammered out a stern memo to McNamara insisting "that the Cuban problem be solved in the near future." That would never be accomplished by waiting around for Ed Lansdale's fairy-tale popular uprising, the memo made clear. There was only one way of getting the job done: "The Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend that a national policy of early military intervention in Cuba be adopted by the United States."
Lemnitzer was wearing out Kennedy and McNamara's patience. After a National Security Council meeting in June, the president took the general aside and told him he wanted to send him to Europe to become NATO's new supreme allied commander. Kennedy would replace Lemnitzer as the nation's top military man with the more amenable Max Taylor. He would have one less warmonger to harass him about Cuba.
We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government.
Operation Northwoods and the Plot to Blame the JFK Assassination on Castro
Pay careful attention to Jim Garrison’s comments starting at 4:14 in the video. At the time of the Jim Garrison trial, he made mention of a plan to assassinate Fidel Castro, which when President Kennedy refused to execute, he himself was killed.
To quote the Wikipedia entry for Operation Northwoods:
“Operation Northwoods was a series of false flag proposals that originated within the United States government in 1962, but were rejected by the Kennedy administration. The proposals called for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), or other operatives, to commit perceived acts of terrorism in U.S. cities and elsewhere. These acts of terrorism were to be blamed on Cuba in order to create public support for a war against that nation, which had recently become communist under Fidel Castro.
“One part of Operation Northwoods was to “develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington”. Operation Northwoods proposals included hijackings and bombings followed by the introduction of phony evidence that would implicate the Cuban government. It stated: The desired resultant from the execution of this plan would be to place the United States in the apparent position of suffering defensible grievances from a rash and irresponsible government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to peace in the Western Hemisphere. Several other proposals were included within Operation Northwoods, including real or simulated actions against various U.S. military and civilian targets. The plan was drafted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, signed by Chairman Lyman Lemnitzer and sent to the Secretary of Defense. Although part of the U.S. government’s Cuban Project anti-communist initiative, Operation Northwoods was never officially accepted it was authorized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but then rejected by President John F. Kennedy.”
If Operation Northwoods proposals included hijackings and bombings followed by the introduction of phony evidence that would implicate the Cuban government, why not the assassination of President Kennedy? Wouldn’t that provoke Americans into an all out war with Cuba? What is known is that Lee Harvey Oswald was employed with the FBI at the time of his death, and that he was warning the FBI that was a militant right-wing plan to kill the president.
Audio clip: Miami police recorded an FBI informant who discussed the assassination with a ultra right-wing militant Klansman Joseph Milteer, November 9, 1963.
On November 24, 1963, two days after the assassination, Milteer related that they would not have to worry about Lee Harvey Oswald getting caught because he “doesn’t know anything” and that the “right wing” is in the clear.
“President Kennedy was assassinated by men who sought to obtain a radical change in our foreign policy, particularly with regard to Cuba. You recall that under President Kennedy the Cold War began to thaw and there were new signs of an effort on the part of the Soviet Union and ourselves to understand each other.
“On the map, this [Cuba] appears to be merely a large island off the coast of Florida. But for many men it meant a good deal more than this. In 1963 a great variety of interests existed, which not only desired an American supported invasion of Castro’s Cuba, but took it for granted that it was inevitable.
“In the minds of many men, this island represented a tremendous emotional landmark, because they had steered their courses toward it for so long, and with such intensity.
“In the fall of 1962 the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred. It was followed by a pronounced new attitude towards Cuba on the part of the United States. Cuba, after this was no longer regarded as an enemy and was no longer regarded as fair game for those men who for one reason or another focused their attention on this island. The new signs of understanding between Russia and the United States continued to develop.
“In June of 1963, President Kennedy, addressing students at the American University in Washington told them, we breathe the same air as the Russians. He said we should try to live together in peace on this Earth. Well at this point some individuals transferred their hostile attention from Fidel Castro to John F. Kennedy. They planned the President’s assassination, and they planned it well.”
Why not just topple Kennedy through covert means that didn’t include murder? The whole point was to incite Americans to war with Cuba. The only way to pull this off is if you had a conspirator who would control the armed forces, FBI, CIA, and other federal agencies and news outlets once the assassination had been completed. There was only one person who could do that, and that was Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson. Johnson, at the time of Kennedy’s murder, was not to be on the ticket in and was also implicated in the murder of a federal agricultural agent in Texas, Henry Marshall. His Mafia ties had also become painfully apparent at a time when Robert F. Kennedy began to crack down on them. It’s also interesting to note that LBJ’s Secret Service codename was “Volunteer” at the time of the assassination.
So why didn’t Johnson invade Cuba after there was such a preponderance of “evidence” implicating Castro? A pretty good reason: the KGB knew Johnson was responsible, and could prove it. Moreover, Americans, and the rest of the world, had been sobered up by the gravity of the Cuban Missile Crisis, which did indeed bring us to the brink of nuclear war.. A very close call with Soviet submarine B-59 demonstrates how close we were. On October 29, 1962, eleven US Navy destroyers and the aircraft carrier USS Randolf had been pursuing the submarine near Cuban waters, but unaware that the US had been dropping practice depth charges to force the submarine to come to the surface to be identified, the Soviet crew assumed they were being attacked. At the time the Soviet crew, having gone to deep in their effort to evade pursuers to monitor any civilian radio traffic from the Americans, had no idea if a war had broken out. There had also been no contact from Moscow for days. The captain of the ship wanted to launch a nuclear torpedo, but such a launch required the unanimous decision of three officers. Arkipov was one of them, and argued against the idea until he finally prevailed over the two officers in favor of a strike. Most Americans had no idea this had occurred, of course, but the incident did prove the asinine mindset of the war hawks who would later try to invade Cuba again, after Kennedy thawed relations with Cuba and the Soviet Union. The Operation Northwoods memo below for the Secretary of Defense, Robert MacNamara, was written almost a year after the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion.
A Member of the Warren Commission Believed Johnson “could be found in it some place…”
Hale Boggs, a member of the Warren Commission, came to believe that Johnson had a role in the assassination of JFK. Boggs had said, in regards to the “single bullet (i.e. Magic Bullet) theory that he “had strong doubts about it.” The implication, of course, is that Oswald couldn’t have acted alone.
Audio LBJ and Attorney General Ramsey Clarke: Member of the Warren Commission believed Johnson “could be found in it some place…”
Johnson had been following the Garrison case from the very beginning. Above is a conversation he had with Attorney General Ramsey Clark regarding the trial, the media’s “jaundiced eye”, and Hale Boggs’ belief that not only was the assassination a conspiracy, but that “Johnson could be found in it some place…”
At that point Johnson asked “Is uh, who did Hale tell this to? …Did Hale tell the district attorney down there that I could be found in it some place?”
Ramsey gives him a name, but it is very difficult to discern due to the poor quality of the tape. As was the case with the constant surveillance of Jim Garrison and any public figure who questioned the lone assassin theory or the integrity of the Magic Bullet Theory, he added that the “FBI had lots of eyes and ears with a fellow like Hale Boggs.” That the the FBI would be investigating a member of the Warren Commission which was tasked with discovering the truth about the assassination was telling in and of itself.
In truth, the Kennedy assassination shouldn’t really be called a conspiracy, because it was much more than that. It was a coup d’état, or an overthrow, i.e. executed by a small group of the existent state, the military, which deposed the Kennedy administration to replace it with the Johnson administration. Because Kennedy would still have loyal supporters in the great majority of the armed services and intelligence community after his death, it was critical that the incoming president was allied with the conspirators to remove, disrupt, or mislead federal and state investigators. Johnson would now control the CIA, FBI, the remaining armed forces, etc. He would also have an incredible amount of control over the print and broadcast media, and it wouldn’t have been the first time. It’s been controlled to one extent or another since Word War II. If you want names, you’ll lose the forest for the trees. The coup could never have taken place without Johnson’s approval and participation.
So where’s the evidence pointing to Johnson? What would motivate Johnson to participate in the plot? There were plenty of good reasons. He had mafia ties at a time when Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy was cracking down on them. He was implicated in the murder of Texas agricultural agent Henry Marshall. There was the Billy Sol Estes Affair. He was also to be dropped from the ticket in 1964, which would effectively end his presidential ambitions and leave him vulnerable to prosecution.
Operation Northwoods: A Proposed False Flag Operation to Fly Planes into US Buildings and Blame Castro
On March 13, 1962, the Joint Chiefs of Staff proposed to President John F. Kennedy that the United States attack itself &mdash and blame Cuba. This is what is known as a &ldquofalse flag&rdquo event.
This proposal came at the request of the CIA&rsquos Edward Lansdale who was in charge of the anti-Castro project.
Kennedy dismissed it as lunacy, certain to lead to war. This set him on a fatal collision course with the most powerful people in the country.
This little-known proposal, code-named Operation Northwoods, is highly relevant today. It provides a crucial backdrop to the murderous mindset of those whom Castro &mdash and Kennedy &mdash had angered. Moreover, we would be foolish to assume that the basic nature of institutions has changed. The temptation to engineer so-called false flag events may simply be too great to resist.
Was Northwoods an anomaly? Certainly not. Creating provocations to justify action &mdash by making it appear you are only reacting &mdash has long been a ploy of many governments, over time and throughout the world.
The United States has hardly been immune to the temptation to shape events, opinion, and historical trajectories: An explosion on the US battleship, The Maine, in Havana Harbor, may have been designed to build public support for the American takeover of Cuba the Gulf of Tonkin incident , an attack blamed on the North Vietnamese to justify widening the Vietnam Conflict Operation Gladio, in which terrorist attacks in Europe in the 1970s were blamed on leftists but engineered by right-wing networks supported by American intelligence. And WhoWhatWhy has covered the recent use of falsified atrocities to justify the overthrow of Muammar Qaddafi and the strategic grab of that valuable North African real estate.
So it is no surprise that many Americans do not trust their government when it assures them it was caught completely unawares by the 9/11 attacks. Because past is prologue, we would do well to learn the particulars of Northwoods.
Peter Dale Scott &mdash professor of English at Berkeley, former Canadian diplomat, poet, author of several critically acclaimed books on the pivotal events of America&rsquos recent past &mdash has unusual insight into such events. Here is a short excerpt from his book, &lsquoAmerican War Machine: Deep Politics, the CIA Global Drug Connection, and the Road to Afghanistan&lsquo (Chapter 9: &ldquo 9/11 and the American Tradition of Engineered Deep Events.&rdquo):
Operation Northwoods: Planning Provocations and Deceptions against Cuba
We know that the Pentagon was capable of planning atrocities as pretexts for war from the series of documents known collectively as Project Northwoods.
Northwoods was a JCS [Joint Chiefs of Staff] response to a request from Edward Lansdale, who in 1962 was chief of operations for the anti-Castro Cuba Project, also known as Operation Mongoose.
Lansdale had asked &ldquofor brief but precise description of pretexts which would provide justification for US military intervention in Cuba.&rdquo (1) The JCS document, signed by JCS Chief Lyman Lemnitzer, obliged with a list of false-flag possibilities such as the following:
We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington. The terror campaign could be pointed at refugees seeking haven in the United States. We could sink a boatload of Cubans en route to Florida (real or simulated). We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement, also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government.
This was only one of nine paragraphs in an annex proposing a menu of (in its words) possible &ldquoprovocation&rdquo and &ldquodeception&rdquo against Cuba.
[Ed: To read about more of these proposed engineered events, please go here.]
That Lemnitzer would forward such a provocative document is not surprising. Only a few months earlier, in July 1961, he had joined CIA Director Allen Dulles in supporting a plan for a nuclear surprise attack on the Soviet Union &ldquoin late 1963, preceded by a period of heightened tensions.&rdquo(2)
Air Force General Leon Johnson later told the National Security Council that the JCS estimated a preemptive strike would result in &ldquoat least 140 million fatalities in the USSR.&rdquo(3)
One year later, in May 1963, another JCS document continued to write of &ldquoengineering a provocation as a pretext for invasion&rdquo and argued that &ldquothe engineering of a series of provocations to justify military intervention is feasible and could be accomplished with the resources available.&rdquo(4)
This document was prepared by J-5, the JCS Directorate of Plans and Policy, &ldquoin response to a request [of March 25, 1963] from the Chairman of the JCS to provide comment and recommendation concerning the requirements for and desirability of fomenting a revolt in Cuba, giving consideration to the advantage of engineering an incident as an alternate cause for invasion.&rdquo(5) This chairman was Kennedy&rsquos choice to succeed Lemnitzer, Maxwell Taylor.
(Taylor is generally remembered as the advocate of a flexible response rather than &ldquomassive retaliation&rdquo to deal with international crises. But he is also the general who, from as early as 1961, was meeting with other hawks &ldquoto get Kennedy to&hellip use military force in both Laos and South Vietnam.&rdquo(6) Significantly, Taylor as JCS Chairman in 1963 was simultaneously promoting J-5 plans for escalated attacks, or 34A Operations, against North Vietnam.)
All this Cuban planning was in support of JCS OPLANS 312 (Air Attack in Cuba) and 316 (Invasion of Cuba). These were not theoretical exercises but actively developed operational plans that the JCS were only too eager to execute.(7)
(It is not generally realized that the blockade of Cuba, now enforced for almost a half century, began as the first step in planning for OPLAN 316.) (8)
In support of these plans, J-5 served as a workshop for manufacturing pretexts, or what we may call deep deception events. As James G. Hershberg wrote in 1990,
A review of Pentagon planning makes it clear that for a small circle of high civilian and military officials, the idea that the United States might deliberately provoke events in Cuba that could serve as a pretext for U.S. intervention represented a possible course of action, frequently invoked, rather than an unthinkable libel that had emerged from the paranoid fantasies of Havana and Moscow.(9)
At least one of the false-flag deceptions envisioned in the Northwoods document &mdash &ldquoCuban&rsquo shipments of arms which would be found, or intercepted, on the beach&rdquo of another country &mdash may have been implemented.
Venezuela announced in November 1963 that it had discovered on a Venezuelan beach a cache of Cuban arms, consisting of rifles, machine guns, and ammunition.
This was shortly after John F. Kennedy had asked CIA Director John McCone for evidence of Castro&rsquos intervention in Venezuela &ldquothat could be presented in a Public forum, such as the OAS [Organization of American States].&rdquo [Especially after the agreement with Khrushchev not to invade Cuba, Kennedy was obsessed with stopping a wider spread of Castroism in Latin America. His request for evidence, however, should not be interpreted as an invitation to manufacture it.]
CIA officers brought one of the cached rifles to the Kennedys, and Richard Helms reports that the president responded, &ldquoGreat work.&rdquo(10) [Ed: To learn more about this episode, please go here. ]
- Joint Chiefs of Staff, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, March 13, 1962 (Northwoods Document), 1, NARA # 202-10002-10404, 128, reproduced in Michael C. Ruppert, Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2004), 595.
- Notes on National Security Meeting, July 20, 1961, in James K. Galbraith and Heather A. Purcell, &ldquoDid the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?&rdquo American Prospect, Fall 1994, 88 cf. James W. Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008), 235.
- Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable, 239&ndash40.
- Joint Chiefs of Staff, &ldquoCourses of Action Related to Cuba (Case II),&rdquo Report of the J-5 to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 1, 1963, NARA #202 -10002-10018, 21, http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?docId=167&relPageId=21.
- Joint Chiefs of Staff, &ldquoCourses of Action Related to Cuba (Case II),&rdquo Report of the J-5 to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 1, 1963, NARA #202-10002-10018, 4.
- Gareth Porter, Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 265, cf. 148.
- g., Memorandum from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to President Kennedy, November 16, 1962, JCSM-910-62, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/msc_cuba186.asp: &ldquoThe Joint Chiefs of Staff are glad to report that our Armed Forces are in an optimum posture to execute CINCLANT OPLANS 312-62 (Air Attack in Cuba) (1) and 316-62 (Invasion of Cuba). (2) We are not only ready to take any action you may order in Cuba, we are also in an excellent condition world-wide to counter any Soviet military response to such action.&rdquo
- Telegram from the Headquarters of the Commander in Chief, Atlantic, to the Headquarters of the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, September 21, 1962, Foreign Relations of the United States , 1961&ndash1963 [hereinafter FRUS], vol. 10, 1082&ndash83.
- Hershberg, &ldquoBefore &lsquoThe Missiles of October,&rsquo&rdquo 242.
- Stephen G. Rabe, The Most Dangerous Area in the World: John F. Kennedy Confronts Communist Revolution in Latin America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), 107.
Analysis Of The Cuban Missile Crisis
According to different resources Cuba missile crisis consisted of two different reasons. For the first reason the main reason of Cuba missile crisis was the US government wanted to overturn the regime of Fidel Castro. In 1959, the Castro came power to overturn the regime of Batista who supported by the US government. The US started to overturn the regime of Castro with the help of members of Organizations of American States. But members just discredited the Castro regime.&hellip
Operation Northwoods - History
U.S. PLANNED FAKE TERRORIST ATTACKS ON CITIZENS
TO CREATE SUPPORT FOR CUBAN WAR
From BODY OF SECRETS, James Bamford, Doubleday, 2001, p.82 and following: scanned and edited by NY Transfer News.
. In [Joint Chief's chair] Lemnitzer's view, the country would be far better off if the generals could take over. [JFK assassination legend has it some general presided over the fudgy JFK autopsy. --Mk]
For those military officers who were sitting on the fence, the Kennedy administration's botched Bay of Pigs invasion was the last straw. "The Bay of Pigs fiasco broke the dike," said one report at the time. "President Kennedy was pilloried by the super patriots as a 'no-win' chief . . .
The Far Right became a fount of proposals born of frustration and put forward in the name of anti-Communism. . . Active-duty commanders played host to anti-Communist seminars on their bases and attended or addressed Right-wing meetings elsewhere."
Although no one in Congress could have known it at the time, Lemnitzer and the Joint Chiefs had quietly slipped over the edge.
According to secret and long-hidden documents (link opens in pdf format) obtained for Body of Secrets, the Joint Chiefs of Staff drew up and approved plans for what may be the most corrupt plan ever created by the U.S. government. In the name of antiCommunism, they proposed launching a secret and bloody war of terrorism against their own country in order to trick the American public into supporting an ill-conceived war they intended to launch against Cuba.
Code named Operation Northwoods, the plan, which had the written approval of the Chairman and every member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, called for innocent people to be shot on American streets for boats carrying refugees fleeing Cuba to be sunk on the high seas for a wave of violent terrorism to be launched in Washington, D.C., Miami, and elsewhere.
People would be framed for bombings they did not commit planes would be hijacked. Using phony evidence, all of it would be blamed on Castro, thus giving Lemnitzer and his cabal the excuse, as well as the public and international backing, they needed to launch their war.
The idea may actually have originated with President Eisenhower in the last days of his administration. With the Cold War hotter than ever and the recent U-2 scandal fresh in the public's memory, the old general wanted to go out with a win. He wanted desperately to invade Cuba in the weeks leading up to Kennedy's inauguration indeed, on January 3 he told Lemnitzer and other aides in his Cabinet Room that he would move against Castro before the inauguration if only the Cubans gave him a really good excuse.
Then, with time growing short, Eisenhower floated an idea. If Castro failed to provide that excuse, perhaps, he said, the United States "could think of manufacturing something that would be generally acceptable." What he was suggesting was a pretext a bombing, an attack, an act of sabotage carried out secretly against the United States by the United States. Its purpose would be to justify the launching of a war. It was a dangerous suggestion by a desperate president.
Although no such war took place, the idea was not lost on General Lemnitzer But he and his colleagues were frustrated by Kennedy's failure to authorize their plan, and angry that Castro had not provided an excuse to invade.
The final straw may have come during a White House meeting on February 26, 1962. Concerned that General Lansdale's various covert action plans under Operation Mongoose were simply becoming more outrageous and going nowhere, Robert Kennedy told him to drop all anti-Castro efforts. Instead, Lansdale was ordered to concentrate for the next three months strictly on gathering intelligence about Cuba. It was a humiliating defeat for Lansdale, a man more accustomed to praise than to scorn.
As the Kennedy brothers appeared to suddenly "go soft" on Castro, Lemnitzer could see his opportunity to invade Cuba quickly slipping away. The attempts to provoke the Cuban public to revolt seemed dead and Castro, unfortunately, appeared to have no inclination to launch any attacks against Americans or their property Lemnitzer and the other Chiefs knew there was only one option left that would ensure their war.
They would have to trick the American public and world opinion into hating Cuba so much that they would not only go along, but would insist that he and his generals launch their war against Castro. "World opinion, and the United Nations forum," said a secret JCS document, "should be favorably affected by developing the international image of the Cuban government as rash and irresponsible, and as an alarming and unpredictable threat to the peace of the Western Hemisphere."
Operation Northwoods called for a war in which many patriotic Americans and innocent Cubans would die senseless deaths, all to satisfy the egos of twisted generals back in Washington, safe in their taxpayer financed homes and limousines.
One idea seriously considered involved the launch of John Glenn, the first American to orbit the earth. On February 20,1962, Glenn was to lift off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on his historic journey. The flight was to carry the banner of America's virtues of truth, freedom, and democracy into orbit high over the planet. But Lemnitzer and his Chiefs had a different idea. They proposed to Lansdale that, should the rocket explode and kill Glenn, "the objective is to provide irrevocable proof that . . . the fault lies with the Communists et al Cuba [sic.]"
This would be accomplished, Lemnitzer continued, "by manufacturing various pieces of evidence which would prove electronic interference on the part of the Cubans." Thus, as NASA prepared to send the first American into space, the Joint Chiefs of Staff were preparing to use John Glenn's possible death as a pretext to launch a war.
Glenn lifted into history without mishap, leaving Lemnitzer and the Chiefs to begin devising new plots which they suggested be carried out "within the time frame of the next few months."
Among the actions recommended was "a series of well coordinated incidents to take place in and around" the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This included dressing "friendly" Cubans in Cuban military uniforms and then have them "start riots near the main gate of the base. Others would pretend to be saboteurs inside the base. Ammunition would be blown up, fires started, aircraft sabotaged, mortars fired at the base with damage to installations."
The suggested operations grew progressively more outrageous. Another called for an action similar to the infamous incident in February 1898 when an explosion aboard the battleship Maine in Havana harbor killed 266 U.S. sailors. Although the exact cause of the explosion remained undetermined, it sparked the Spanish-American War with Cuba.
[NOTE: According to Doug Reed in Controversy of Zion , when the Maine was raised, her plates were found to have been blown out by an inner explosion. JP ]
Incited by the deadly blast, more than one million men volunteered for duty. Lemnitzer and his generals came up with a similar plan. "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," they proposed "casualty lists in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."
There seemed no limit to their fanaticism: "We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington," they wrote. "The terror campaign could be pointed at Cuban refugees seeking haven in the United States.
We could sink a boatload of Cubans en route to Florida (real or simulated). . . . We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized."
Bombings were proposed, false arrests, hijackings:
*"Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government."
*"Advantage can be taken of the sensitivity of the Dominican [Republic] Air Force to intrusions within their national air space. 'Cuban' B-26 or C-46 type aircraft could make cane burning raids at night. Soviet Bloc incendiaries could be found. This could be coupled with 'Cuban' messages to the Communist underground in the Dominican Republic and 'Cuban' shipments of arms which would be found, or intercepted, on the beach. Use of MiG type aircraft by U.S. pilots could provide additional provocation."
*"Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft could appear to continue as harassing measures condoned by the Government of Cuba."
Among the most elaborate schemes was to "create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba. The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday or any grouping of persons with a common interest to support chartering a non-scheduled flight."
Lemnitzer and the Joint Chiefs worked out a complex deception:
An aircraft at Elgin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CJA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At a designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with the selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone [a remotely controlled unmanned aircraft]. Take off times of the drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida.
From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Elgin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will be transmitting on the international distress frequency a "May Day" message stating he is under attack by Cuban MiG aircraft.
The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft, which will be triggered by radio signal. This will allow ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization radio stations in the Western Hemisphere to tell the U.S. what has happened to the aircraft instead of the U.S. trying to "sell" the incident.
Finally, there was a plan to "make it appear that Communist Cuban MiGs have destroyed a USAF aircraft over international waters in an unprovoked attack." It was a particularly believable operation given the decade of shoot downs that had just taken place.
In the final sentence of his letter to Secretary McNamara recommending the operations, Lemnitzer made a grab for even more power asking that the Joint Chiefs be placed in charge of carrying out Operation Northwoods and the invasion. "It is recommended," he wrote, "that this responsibility for both oven and covert military operations be assigned to the Joint Chiefs of Staff."
At 2:30 on the afternoon of Tuesday, March 13, 1962, Lemnitzer went over last-minute details of Operation Northwoods with his covert action chief, Brigadier General William H. Craig, and signed the document. He then went to a "special meeting" in McNamara's office. An hour later he met with Kennedy's military representative, General Maxwell Taylor.
What happened during those meetings is unknown. But three days later, President Kennedy told Lemnitzer that there was virtually no possibility that the U.S. would ever use overt military force in Cuba.
Undeterred, Lemnitzer and the Chiefs persisted, virtually to the point of demanding that they be given authority to invade and take over Cuba. About a month after submitting Operation Northwoods, they met the "tank," as the JCS conference room was called, and agreed on the wording of a tough memorandum to McNamara. They wrote:
"The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the Cuban problem must be solved in the near future.
"Further, they see no prospect of early success in overthrowing the present communist regime either as a result of internal uprising or external political, economic or psychological pressures. Accordingly they believe that military intervention by the United States will be required to overthrow the present communist regime."
Lemnitzer was virtually rabid in his hatred of Communism in general and Castro in particular "The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the United States can undertake military intervention in Cuba without risk of general war" he continued. "They also believe that the intervention can be accomplished rapidly enough to minimize communist opportunities for solicitation of UN action." However what Lemnitzer was suggesting was not freeing the Cuban people, who were largely in support of Castro, but imprisoning them in a U.S. military-controlled police state. "Forces would assure rapid essential military control of Cuba," he wrote. "Continued police action would be required."
Concluding, Lemnitzer did not mince words: "[T]he Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend that a national policy of early military intervention in Cuba be adopted by the United States. They also recommend that such intervention be undertaken as soon as possible and preferably before the release of National Guard and Reserve forces presently on active duty."
By then McNamara had virtually no confidence in his military chief and was rejecting nearly every proposal the general sent to him. The rejections became so routine, said one of Lemnitzer's former staff officers, that the staffer told the general that the situation was putting the military in an "embarrassing rut." But Lemnitzer replied, "I am the senior military office--it's my job to state what I believe and it's his [McNamara's] job to approve or disapprove." "McNamara's arrogance was astonishing," said Lemnitzer's aide, who knew nothing of Operation Northwoods. "He gave General Lemnitzer very short shrift and treated him like a schoolboy. The general almost stood at attention when he came into the room. Everything was 'Yes, sir' and 'No, sir.'
Within months, Lemnitzer was denied a second term as JCS chairman and transferred to Europe as chief of NATO. Years later President Gerald Ford appointed Lemnitzer, a darling of the Republican right, to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. Lemnitzer's Cuba chief, Brigadier General Craig, was also transferred. Promoted to major general, he spent three years as chief of the Army Security Agency, NSA's military arm.
Because of the secrecy and illegality of Operation Northwoods, all details remained hidden for forty years. Lemnitzer may have thought that all copies of the relevant documents had been destroyed he was not one to leave compromising material lying around. Following the Bay of Pigs debacle, for example, he ordered Brigadier General David W Gray, Craig's predecessor as chief of the Cuba project within the JCS, to destroy all his notes concerning Joint Chiefs actions and discussions during that period. Gray's meticulous notes were the only detailed official records of what happened within the JCS during that time. According to Gray, Lemnitzer feared a congressional investigation and therefore wanted any incriminating evidence destroyed.
With the evidence destroyed, Lemnitzer felt free to lie to Congress. When asked, during secret hearings before a Senate committee, if he knew of any Pentagon plans for a direct invasion of Cuba he said he did not. Yet detailed JCS invasion plans had been drawn up even before Kennedy was inaugurated. And additional plans had been developed since.
The consummate planner and man of details also became evasive, suddenly encountering great difficulty in recalling key aspects of the operation, as if he had been out of the country during the period. It was a sorry spectacle. Senator Gore called for Lemnitzer to be fired. "We need a shake up of the Joint Chiefs of Staff" he said. "We direly need a new chairman, as well as new members." No one had any idea of Operation Northwoods.
Because so many documents were destroyed, it is difficult to determine how many senior officials were aware of Operation Northwoods. As has been described, the document was signed and fully approved by Lemnitzer and the rest of the Joint Chiefs and addressed to the Secretary of Defense for his signature. Whether it went beyond McNamara to the president and the attorney general is not known.
Even after Lemnitzer lost his job, the Joint Chiefs kept planning "pretext" operations at least into 1963. Among their proposals was a deliberately create a war between Cuba and any of a number of .n American neighbors.
This would give the United States military an excuse to come in on the side of Cuba's adversary and get rid of "A contrived 'Cuban' attack on an OAS [Organization of Americas] member could be set up," said one proposal, "and the attacked state could be urged to 'take measures of self-defense and request ice from the U.S. and OAS the U.S. could almost certainly obtain necessary two-thirds support among OAS members for collective action against Cuba."
Among the nations they suggested that the United States secretly were Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago. Both were members of the Commonwealth thus, by secretly attacking them and then blaming Cuba, the United States could lure England into the war Castro. The report noted, "Any of the contrived situations de above are inherently, extremely risky in our democratic system in which security can be maintained, after the fact, with very great difficulty.
If the decision should be made to set up a contrived situation it be one in which participation by U.S. personnel is limited only to the most highly trusted covert personnel. This suggests the infeasibility of the use of military units for any aspect of the contrived situation."
The report even suggested secretly paying someone in the Castro government to attack the United States: "The only area remaining for ration then would be to bribe one of Castro's subordinate commanders to initiate an attack on [the U.S. naval base at] Guantanamo." The act suggested--bribing a foreign nation to launch a violent attack American military installation--was treason.
In May 1963, Assistant Secretary of Defense Paul H. Nitze sent a the White House proposing "a possible scenario whereby an attack on a United States reconnaissance aircraft could be exploited toward the end of effecting the removal of the Castro regime."
In the event Cuba attacked a U-2, the plan proposed sending in additional American pilots, this time on dangerous, unnecessary low-level reconnaissance missions with the expectation that they would also be shot down, thus provoking a war "[T]he U.S. could undertake various measures designed to stimulate the Cubans to provoke a new incident," said the plan. Nitze, however, did not volunteer to be one of the pilots.
One idea involved sending fighters across the island on "harassing reconnaissance" and "show-off" missions "flaunting our freedom of action, hoping to stir the Cuban military to action." "Thus," said the plan, "depending above all on whether the Cubans were or could be made to be trigger-happy, the development of the initial downing of a reconnaissance plane could lead at best to the elimination of Castro, perhaps to the removal of Soviet troops and the installation of ground inspection in Cuba, or at the least to our demonstration of firmness on reconnaissance." About a month later, a low-level flight was made across Cuba, but unfortunately for the Pentagon, instead of bullets it produced only a protest.
Lemnitzer was a dangerous-perhaps even unbalanced-right-wing extremist in an extraordinarily sensitive position during a critical period. But Operation Northwoods also had the support of every single member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and even senior Pentagon official Paul Nitze argued in favor of provoking a phony war with Cuba.
The fact that the most senior members of all the services and the Pentagon could be so out of touch with reality and the meaning of democracy would be hidden for four decades.
In retrospect, the documents offer new insight into the thinking of the military's star-studded leadership. Although they never succeeded in launching America into a phony war with Cuba, they may have done so with Vietnam. More than 50,000 Americans and more than 2 million Vietnamese were eventually killed in that war.
It has long been suspected that the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident-the spark that led to America's long war in Vietnam-was largely staged or provoked by U.S. officials in order to build up congressional and public support for American involvement. Over the years, serious questions have been raised about the alleged attack by North Vietnamese patrol boats on two American destroyers in the Gulf But defenders of the Pentagon have always denied such charges, arguing that senior officials would never engage in such deceit.
Now, however, in light of the Operation Northwoods documents, it at deceiving the public and trumping up wars for Americans to fight and die in was standard, approved policy at the highest levels of the Pentagon. In fact, the Gulf of Tonkin seems right out of the Operation Northwoods playbook: "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba . . . casualty lists in U.S. newspapers cause a helpful wave of indignation."
One need only replace "Guantanamo Bay" with "Tonkin Gulf," and "Cuba" with "North Vietnam" and the Gulf of Tonkin incident may or may not have been stage-managed, but the senior Pentagon leadership at the time was clearly capable of such deceit.
"The public has a duty to watch its Government closely and keep it on the right track." --Lieutenant Gen. Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, Director, NSA, _NSA Newsletter_, June 1997
Operation Northwoods (Cold War Mystery!)
MYS151: In 1962, the Joint Chiefs of Staff sent Operation Northwoods to JFK as a daring, covert plan to stop a potential Soviet invasion. Jimmy Akin and Dom Bettinelli discuss this now declassified plan, the shocking series of secret actions it proposed, and Kennedy’s response.
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History: Operation Northwoods was some crazy shit
I'm not american, so perhaps you'd excuse my ignorance, but this seems like a conspiracy theory except it's actually real.
The US government planned domestic terror acts in order to blame it on Cuba and justify a war. In the end it was rejected by JFK but the fact that this was an actual plan is mindblowing. Perhaps it's no wonder there are so many conspiracy theories, when there are real actual conspiracies too.
Operation Northwoods - Wikipedia
I'm not american, so perhaps you'd excuse my ignorance, but this seems like a conspiracy theory except it's actually real.
The US government planned domestic terror acts in order to blame it on Cuba and justify a war. In the end it was rejected by JFK but the fact that this was an actual plan is mindblowing. Perhaps it's no wonder there are so many conspiracy theories, when there are real actual conspiracies too.
Operation Northwoods - History
Book: U.S. Military Drafted Plans to Terrorize U.S. Cities to Provoke War With Cuba
By David Ruppe
N E W Y O R K, May 1 In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders reportedly
drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create
public support for a war against Cuba.
Code named Operation Northwoods, the plans reportedly included the possible
assassination of Cuban ï¿½migrï¿½s, sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas,
hijacking planes, blowing up a U.S. ship, and even orchestrating violent terrorism in U.S.
The plans were developed as ways to trick the American public and the international
community into supporting a war to oust Cuba's then new leader, communist Fidel Castro.
America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.S. military casualties, writing:
"We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," and, "casualty lists
in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."
Details of the plans are described in Body of Secrets (Doubleday), a new book by
investigative reporter James Bamford about the history of America's largest spy agency,
the National Security Agency. However, the plans were not connected to the agency, he
The plans had the written approval of all of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and were presented to
President Kennedy's defense secretary, Robert McNamara, in March 1962. But they
apparently were rejected by the civilian leadership and have gone undisclosed for nearly 40
"These were Joint Chiefs of Staff documents. The reason these were held secret for so
long is the Joint Chiefs never wanted to give these up because they were so embarrassing,"
Bamford told ABCNEWS.com.
"The whole point of a democracy is to have leaders responding to the public will, and here
this is the complete reverse, the military trying to trick the American people into a war that
they want but that nobody else wants."
Gunning for War
The documents show "the Joint Chiefs of Staff drew up and approved plans for what may
be the most corrupt plan ever created by the U.S. government," writes Bamford.
The Joint Chiefs even proposed using the potential death of astronaut John Glenn during
the first attempt to put an American into orbit as a false pretext for war with Cuba, the
Should the rocket explode and kill Glenn, they wrote, "the objective is to provide
irrevocable proof that the fault lies with the Communists et all Cuba [sic]."
The plans were motivated by an intense desire among senior military leaders to depose
Castro, who seized power in 1959 to become the first communist leader in the Western
Hemisphere only 90 miles from U.S. shores.
The earlier CIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles had been a
disastrous failure, in which the military was not allowed to provide firepower.The military
leaders now wanted a shot at it.
"The whole thing was so bizarre," says Bamford, noting public and international support
would be needed for an invasion, but apparently neither the American public, nor the
Cuban public, wanted to see U.S. troops deployed to drive out Castro.
Reflecting this, the U.S. plan called for establishing prolonged military not democratic
control over the island nation after the invasion.
"That's what we're supposed to be freeing them from," Bamford says. "The only way we
would have succeeded is by doing exactly what the Russians were doing all over the
world, by imposing a government by tyranny, basically what we were accusing Castro
himself of doing."
'Over the Edge'
The Joint Chiefs at the time were headed by Eisenhower appointee Army Gen. Lyman L.
Lemnitzer, who, with the signed plans in hand made a pitch to McNamara on March 13,
1962, recommending Operation Northwoods be run by the military.
Whether the Joint Chiefs' plans were rejected by McNamara in the meeting is not clear.
But three days later, President Kennedy told Lemnitzer directly there was virtually no
possibility of ever using overt force to take Cuba, Bamford reports. Within months,
Lemnitzer would be denied another term as chairman and transferred to another job.
The secret plans came at a time when there was distrust in the military leadership about
their civilian leadership, with leaders in the Kennedy administration viewed as too liberal,
insufficiently experienced and soft on communism. At the same time, however, there real
were concerns in American society about their military overstepping its bounds.
There were reports U.S. military leaders had encouraged their subordinates to vote
conservative during the election.
And at least two popular books were published focusing on a right-wing military
leadership pushing the limits against government policy of the day. The Senate Foreign
Relations Committee published its own report on right-wing extremism in the military,
warning a "considerable danger" in the "education and propaganda activities of military
personnel" had been uncovered. The committee even called for an examination of any ties
between Lemnitzer and right-wing groups. But Congress didn't get wind of Northwoods,
"Although no one in Congress could have known at the time," he writes, "Lemnitzer and
the Joint Chiefs had quietly slipped over the edge."
Even after Lemnitzer was gone, he writes, the Joint Chiefs continued to plan "pretext"
operations at least through 1963.
One idea was to create a war between Cuba and another Latin American country so that
the United States could intervene. Another was to pay someone in the Castro government
to attack U.S. forces at the Guantanamo naval base an act, which Bamford notes,
would have amounted to treason. And another was to fly low level U-2 flights over Cuba,
with the intention of having one shot down as a pretext for a war.
"There really was a worry at the time about the military going off crazy and they did, but
they never succeeded, but it wasn't for lack of trying," he says.
After 40 Years
Ironically, the documents came to light, says Bamford, in part because of the 1992 Oliver
Stone film JFK, which examined the possibility of a conspiracy behind the assassination of
As public interest in the assassination swelled after JFK's release, Congress passed a law
designed to increase the public's access to government records related to the assassination.
The author says a friend on the board tipped him off to the documents.
Afraid of a congressional investigation, Lemnitzer had ordered all Joint Chiefs documents
related to the Bay of Pigs destroyed, says Bamford. But somehow, these remained.
"The scary thing is none of this stuff comes out until 40 years after," says Bamford
"WAR IS A RACKET." MAJOR GENERAL SMEDLEY BUTLER, USMC.
A highly revealing ABC news article < http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=92662> describes plans for government-sponsored terrorism right here in America:
"In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create public support for a war against Cuba."
The article goes on to reveal that the plans, code-named Operation Northwoods, were approved in writing by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and endorsed by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. Yes, it's a fact that our own military leaders proposed we secretly blow up an American ship and hijack US planes as a false pretext for war!
To access 181 pages of declassified U.S. military documents on the official website of the National Archives and Records Administration which reveal plans of the top U.S. generals to sponsor terrorism on U.S. soil, go here:
To read the 15 most revealing pages of these documents posted on the National Security Archive of George Washington University, see:
Note that these government documents were approved in writing by the Joint Chiefs of Staff - the top generals of each branch of the US armed forces - and submitted to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1962. The only reason these plans were not implemented is that they were rejected by the Kennedy administration. Had the administration approved, these secret manipulations would almost certainly have fooled the American public into supporting war. These plans for government- sponsored terrorism were classified top secret so that the American public would never know how it was being manipulated. They came to light only because of a Freedom of Information Act request in the late 1990s. Had the plans been used, they would have been given operational status, and thus would never have been released to the public in accordance with secrecy laws.
Below are key passages quoted directly from the Operation Northwoods documents, which you can verify at the above links. Page numbers are listed to assist in finding the quotes in the original documents. As you read, we invite you to then ask yourself, is it beyond comprehension that this same kind of thinking and planning could have led to 9/11? More information on what you can do is given below these quotes.
Excerpts from Operation Northwoods Documents
Page 1 of File (Memorandum)
MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
Subject: Justification for US Military Intervention in Cuba
The Joint Chiefs of Staff have considered the attached Memorandum for the Chief of Operations, Cuba Project, which responds to a request of that office for brief but precise description of pretexts which could provide justification for US military intervention in Cuba. It is assumed that a single agency will be given the primary responsibility for developing military and para- military aspects of the basic plan. It is recommended that this responsibility for both overt and covert military operations be assigned the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Page 5 of File (page 2 of Joint Chiefs report)
World opinion, and the United Nations forum should be favorably affected by developing the international image of the Cuban government as rash and irresponsible, and as an alarming and unpredictable threat to the peace of the Western Hemisphere.
Page 8 of File (page 5 of Joint Chiefs report)
This plan . should be developed to focus all efforts on a specific ultimate objective which would provide adequate justification for US military intervention. Such a plan would enable a logical build-up of incidents to be combined with other seemingly unrelated events to camouflage the ultimate objective.
Page 10-11 of File (page 7-8 of Joint Chiefs report)
A series of well coordinated incidents will be planned to take place in and around Guantanamo to give genuine appearance of being done by hostile Cuban forces.
(1) Start rumors (many). Use clandestine radio.
(2) Land friendly Cubans in uniform "over-the-fence" to stage attack on base.
(3) Capture Cuban (friendly) saboteurs inside the base.
(4) Start riots near the base main gate (friendly Cubans).
(5) Blow up ammunition inside the base: start fires.
(6) Burn aircraft on air base (sabotage).
(7) Lob mortar shells from outside of base into base.
(8) Capture assault teams approaching from the sea or vicinity of Guantanamo City.
(9) Capture militia group which storms base.
(10) Sabotage ship in harbor large fires - naphthalene.
(11) Sink ship near harbor entrance. Conduct funerals for mock-victims.
We could blow up a US ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba. Casualty lists in US newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation.
We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.
Page 12 of File (page 9 of Joint Chiefs report)
Use of [Soviet] MIG type aircraft by US pilots could provide additional provocation. Attacks on surface shipping and destruction of US military drone aircraft by MIG type planes would be useful as complementary actions. Reasonable copies of the MIG could be produced from US resources in about three months.
Page 13 of File (page 10 of Joint Chiefs report)
Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft should appear to continue as harassing measures condoned by the government of Cuba.
It is possible to create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner enroute from the United States. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan to cross Cuba. The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday.
An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At the designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual aircraft would be converted to a drone.
The drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida. From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Eglin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will be transmitting on the international distress frequency a "MAY DAY" message stating he is under attack by Cuban MIG aircraft. The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft which will be triggered by radio signal.
Remember that government and military leaders think of world politics like a chess game. Sometimes you have to sacrifice your own pieces in order to win the game. Zbigniew Brzezinski, former U.S.
National Security Advisor and co-founder of the Trilateral Commission, titled his 1997 book The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. In this seminal book on American foreign policy, Brzezinksi states that because of popular resistance to U.S. military expansionism, his ambitious strategy for "American global primacy" can't be implemented "except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat." (The Grand Chessboard < http://www.WantToKnow.info/brzezinskigrandchessboard> , page 211).
Consider also that in September 2000, a think-tank named Project for the New American Century published a blueprint for maintaining global U.S. preeminence and shaping the international security order in line with U.S. interests. Written before the 2000 Presidential election, this revealing report was commissioned by future Vice President Cheney, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz, and Governor Jeb Bush. The report shows that even before 9/11, the Bush administration intended to take military control of Persian Gulf oil whether or not Saddam Hussein was in power. [Article on BBC website and original report both available here < http://www.wanttoknow.info/9-11cover-up10pg#pnac> ]
Considering the above information, is it beyond comprehension that tactics similar to Operation Northwoods might have been used in relation to the 9/11 attacks in order to create "a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat?"
Could 9/11 have been the pretext upon which to build a War on Terror in order to "maintain global US preeminence?"
Might the 9/11 attacks have been allowed to happen, or even facilitated and manipulated by elements of the U.S. government and military? For what a highly decorated U.S. general had to say on how politicians and corporations manipulate the public to support war, click here < http://www.wanttoknow.info/warcoverup> .
We invite you to explore a two-page summary of easily verifiable facts with links direct to major media sources which suggest a major 9/11 cover-up by clicking here < http://www.WantToKnow.info/9-
To access three riveting documentaries which explore the above vital facts and much more, click
For additional empowering information on these and other reliable resources on the 9/11 cover-up,
"My wife and I, transfixed in front of a TV as the horror of 9/11 unfolded, watched
as the topmost, undamaged floors of the WTC South Tower started to gradually lean (rotate)
in the direction of the damage due to impact. In an instant, the rotation stopped, and that
which was rotating began to fall, as if only under the influence of gravity! The fulcrum
was no longer there. I blurted out, 'My god, they wired the building'."
- Mike Hawryluk, Professor Emeritus of Physics and former Division Chairman,
One of the most well-known secret research programs is the Manhattan Project, which eventually produced the world's first atomic bombs. The project began in 1939, and was cloaked in secrecy as physicists investigated the potential power of atomic weapons. From 1942 to 1946, Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers led the Manhattan Project.
The first nuclear bomb was detonated at 5:30 a.m. on July 16, 1945, during the so-called Trinity test at the Alamogordo Air Base, 120 miles (193 km) south of Albuquerque, N.M. The explosion created a mushroom cloud that stretched 40,000 feet (12,200 m), and the bomb's explosive power was equivalent to more than 15,000 tons of TNT.
A month after the Trinity test, two atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in the waning stages of World War II. To date, the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain the only uses of nuclear weapons in war.
(6:30 a.m.) September 11, 2001: NORAD on Alert for Emergency Exercises
NORAD’s war room in Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado [Source: Val Gempis] Lieutenant Colonel Dawne Deskins and other day shift employees at NORAD’s Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) in Rome, NY, start their workday. NORAD is conducting a week-long, large-scale exercise called Vigilant Guardian. [Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002] Deskins is regional mission crew chief for the Vigilant Guardian exercise. [ABC News, 9/11/2002]
Exercise Includes Simulated Attack on the US - Vigilant Guardian is described as “an exercise that would pose an imaginary crisis to North American Air Defense outposts nationwide” as a “simulated air war” and as “an air defense exercise simulating an attack on the United States.” According to the 9/11 Commission, it “postulated a bomber attack from the former Soviet Union.” [Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002 Filson, 2003, pp. 55 and 122 9/11 Commission, 7/24/2004, pp. 458] Vigilant Guardian is described as being held annually, and is one of NORAD’s four major annual exercises. [Filson, 2003, pp. 41 Arkin, 2005, pp. 545 GlobalSecurity (.org), 4/27/2005] However, one report says it takes place semi-annually. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002] Accounts by participants vary on whether 9/11 is the second, third, or fourth day of the exercise. [Code One Magazine, 1/2002 Newhouse News Service, 1/25/2002 Ottawa Citizen, 9/11/2002] Vigilant Guardian is a command post exercise (CPX), and in at least some previous years was conducted in conjunction with Stratcom’s Global Guardian exercise and a US Space Command exercise called Apollo Guardian. [US Congress, n.d. Arkin, 2005, pp. 545 GlobalSecurity (.org), 4/27/2005] All of NORAD is participating in Vigilant Guardian on 9/11. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002]
Exercise Includes Simulated Hijacking - Vanity Fair reports that the “day’s exercise” (presumably Vigilant Guardian) is “designed to run a range of scenarios, including a ‘traditional’ simulated hijack in which politically motivated perpetrators commandeer an aircraft, land on a Cuba-like island, and seek asylum.” [Vanity Fair, 8/1/2006] However, at NEADS, most of the dozen or so staff on the operations floor have no idea what the exercise is going to entail and are ready for anything. [Utica Observer-Dispatch, 8/5/2004]
NORAD Fully Staffed and Alert - NORAD is currently running a real-world operation named Operation Northern Vigilance (see September 9, 2001). It may also be conducting a field training exercise calling Amalgam Warrior on this morning (see 9:28 a.m. September 11, 2001). NORAD is thus fully staffed and alert, and senior officers are manning stations throughout the US. The entire chain of command will be in place and ready when the first hijacking is reported. An article later says, “In retrospect, the exercise would prove to be a serendipitous enabler of a rapid military response to terrorist attacks on September 11.” [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/2002 Bergen Record, 12/5/2003] Colonel Robert Marr, in charge of NEADS, will say: “We had the fighters with a little more gas on board. A few more weapons on board.” [ABC News, 9/11/2002] However, Deskins and other NORAD officials later are initially confused about whether the 9/11 attacks are real or part of the exercise (see (8:38 a.m.-8:43 a.m.) September 11, 2001).