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(AM-260: dp. 625; 1. 184'6"; b.,33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.; cpl.
104; a. 13", 4 40mm.; cl. Admirable)
The second Magnet (AM-260) was laid down by American Shipbuilding Co., Lorain, Ohio, 13 March 1943; launched 5 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. John J. Boland; and commissioned 10 March 1944, Lt. H. A. Babione in command.
Following commissioning in the 9th Naval District, Magnet steamed down the Mississippi River en route to Norfolk, reporting 17 April 1944. After shakedown in the Chesapeake Bay, she joined Mine Division 31 and, for the next 9 months operated out of Recife, Brazil, sweeping the main shipping channels of South American ports. She also escorted convoys to and from the West Indies, patrolled the harbor, and engaged in antisubmarine training.
On 10 March 1945 she was detached from the South Atlantic Forces and assigned to TG 23.2 at Miami. There she served as a schoolship until 28 June, when she got underway for Norfolk. On 18 August, after a brief overhaul, she returned to Miami, where she decommissioned on the 28th. Transferred to the Nationalist Chinese Government under the terms of lend lease the game day, she commissioned in that Navy as Yung Shun (MSF-46). Yung Shun was officially returned in accordance with the terms of the original loan, and then redelivered to the Republic of China under the Military Assistance Program, 7 February 1948. Magnet was struck from the Navy list 12 March 1948.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
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The 1960’s were a pivotal decade in many ways including firearms, especially American made big game rifles. Remington’s Model 700 dominated the market. Winchester’s redesigned Model 70 remained a contender and the Savage 110 was building its own loyal following.
Keep in mind, there were still an abundance of surplus Mausers, Carcanos and Arisakas for bargain basement prices and lever action models remained the most popular big game design. But everyone was looking for something different and Strum, Ruger & Company soon joined the arms race.
In 1965 when Jim Sullivan joined the Ruger team. Sullivan had previously worked at Armalite where he played a pivotal part in bringing the M16 into production. He was brought on by Ruger specifically to help develop bolt action big game rifle capable of competing with Winchester’s Model 70 and Remington’s Model 700.
Although Sullivan is credited with designing the M77, it was not without Bill Ruger’s influence. Ruger was reportedly a big fan of the Mauser 98 which became the foundation on which the M77 was designed. Twin forward locking lugs and 90-degree bolt lift are two such influences but there is no doubt the original M77 resembles a distant cousin of the ‘98. Ruger was also responsible for features such as the hinged floorplate, flanged left side bolt sleeve and tang safety – although the latter would be replaced in future designs.
Despite the similarities, the M77 is not a redesigned or improved Mauser. There are several features that not only distinguish the M77 but were also ground break in terms of firearms design. First and foremost are the receiver and bolt construction. Sullivan insisted on using investment casting for both, while the standard for the time was to mill each from solid bar stock steel. He also utilized a relatively plain walnut stock. Although designed by famed stock maker Lenard Brownell the result was remarkably simple and, apart from the necessary checkering, void of embellishments.
The final design was introduced in 1968 and, despite lukewarm reception, would go on to become one of the most popular big game rifles of the era. For the next 21 years the M77 would remain virtually unchanged and sell over 1 million units.
Features (original M77)
- Casted receiver and bolt
- Plain walnut stock by Brownell
- Twin forward locking lugs
- 90-degree bolt lift
- Hinged doorplate
- Tang safety
- Flanged left side bolt sleeve
Features (currently available models)
- Cold hammer-forged barrel
- Stainless-steel bolt
- Detachable, flush mounted rotary magazine
- Integral scope mounts machined directly on the solid steel receiver
- Three position safety that allows loading & unloading with safety engaged
- Factory mounted swivel studs
- 22-250 Rem., .223, 230 Swift, 6mm Rem., 250/3000, 264 Win., 7吵, 7mm-08 Rem., 30-06 Sprg., 300 Win Mag., 308 Win., 338 Win., 350 Rem., 35 Whelan, 359 Win Mag., 416 Taylor, 458 Win Mag., 458 Rem Mag.
The Mark II
While there had been minor changes along the way, including a milled scope mount and more accurate Ruger produced barrels, the M77 remained relatively unchanged until 1991 with the introduction of the Mark II. This model was almost entirely retooled and included a redesigned safety, trigger, and bolt. Additional changes included an open-face bolt, Mauser style blade ejector and elimination of the adjustable trigger. The classic bare bones but bulky stock was also slimmed down.
Shooters responded with a renewed interest and the Mark II once again propelled Ruger to the top of the big game bolt action market. Especially popular were the 3-position wing safety, fixed-blade ejector, and the use of stainless steel for the bolt body & handle. The Mark II was also available in additional variation including a Compact, Target & All-Weather model as well as a large selection of calibers.
- Three action lengths – short, standard and magnum
- Circassian walnut stock
- Sights – ramp front & folding leaf express rear
- Magazine control feed from 4 or 5 round box magazine
- Pivoting ejector
- 3 position safety
- Fast lock-time steel trigger mechanism
- Quick release hinged floorplate
- Rubber recoil pad
- Three version – Standard (M77R), Magnum (M77RSM) and Compact (M77CR)
- .204 Ruger, .22-250 Remington, .223 Remington, .270, 6.5 Creedmoor, .308 Winchester, .300 Magnum, 7mm, .338 Magnum, .30-06..416 Rigby,.404 Jeffery, .357 Magnum & .458 Lott
Despite the continued popularity of both the original M77 and the Mark II there was still room for improvement. Many shooters complained that the Mark II trigger, which unlike the M77’s was not adjustable, performed poorly. Stock designs had also started trend towards a sleeker, more compact profile.
In 2006 Ruger introduced the Hawkeye, the second reincarnation of the original M77. The trigger was the LC6 and the stock was a rounded, compact walnut design with a new checkering pattern. Finally, a left-handed model was introduced as well.
The Hawkeye is also offered in a wide range of specialty versions, each offering specific features or calibers best suited for the task at hand. These versions include:
African– utilizes a 23” barrel, Ruger muzzle break and walnut stock. Offered in
calibers including .223 Remington
All-weather – lighter version of standard Hawkeye with synthetic stock and stainless-steel barrel & receiver.
Alaskan – 20” Stainless steel barrel & receiver with Black Hogue stock, bead front sight and adjustable rear sight.
Compact – shorter version of standard Hawkeye with 16.5” barrel. Also available in a laminated version.
Hunter – available in three barrel lengths (20”, 22” or 24”), American walnut stock and right or left hand models.
FTW Hunter– stainless steel & Hawkeye Matte finish, Natural Gear Camo Hardwood stock and 22” or 24” barrel.
Long Range Target – alloy steel & matte black finish, Speckled black/brown laminate stock, and 26” barrel.
Long Range Hunter – stainless steel & Hawkeye Matte finish, speckled black/brown laminate stock, and 22” barrel
Predator – stainless steel & Hawkeye Matte finish, Green Mountain laminate stock, and 22” or 24” barrel.
Guide Gun – stainless steel & Hawkeye Matte finish, Green Mountain laminate stock, 20” barrel & removable Ruger muzzle break.
Magnum Hunter – chambered in .300 Winchester Magnum and fitted with Ruger muzzle break.
Sporter– mid-weight version offered with either 22” or 24” barrel.
- Non-rotating Mauser type controlled round feed extractor
- Fixed blade ejector
- Hinged, solid-steel floorplate with patented, flush mounted latch
- 3 position safety to allow unloading with safety engaged
- Cold hammer-forged barrel
- Integral scope mounts machined directly on the solid-steel receiver
- One-piece stainless-steel bolt
- Sling studs
- Variety of barrel lengths – 16.5”, 20”, 22”, 23”, 24”, 26”
- Hunter – 6.5 Creedmoor, 6.5 PRC, .308 Win., .30-06 Sprg., .300 Win Mag., 7mm Rem Mag., 204 Ruger
- FTW Hunter – .375 Ruger, 6.5 Creedmoor
- Long Range Hunter – 6.5 Creedmoor
- Long Range Target – .300 Win Mag., 6.5 Creedmoor, 6.5 PRC, 204 Ruger, .308 Win.
- Predator – .22-250 Rem., .223 Rem., .204 Ruger, 6.5 Creedmoor
- Compact- .308 Win., 7mm-08 Rem.
- Laminated Compact – .243 Rem, .308 Win., 7mm-08 Rem.
- African – .416 Ruger, 375 Ruger, 6.5吳, .280 Ackley Improved
- Alaskan – .375 Ruger, .338 Win Mag., 300 Win Mag.
- Guide Gun- .338 Win Mag., .30-06 Sprg., 375 Ruger, 416 Ruger
The .30-06 Cal. SAR
This model was based on the Mark II and specifically designed for use by Canadian Search & Rescue teams. The stock was replaced by an orange butt that can be folded, the barrel was shortened to 14.5” and the capacity was increased to include 6 additional rounds (stored in butt). Each rifle also included a carry case that allowed the folded rifle to be easily attached to a parachute harness.
The Gunsite Scout Rifle
In 2011 the Gunsite Scout Rifle was added to the M77 family tree. This pastiest addition was a collaborative effort between Ruger and Gunsite Training Center, with a goal of producing a modern Scout Rifle based on the criteria forwarded by Col. Jeff Copper.
This rifle incorporates a black laminated stock, ghost ring sights, picatinny optic rail, flash suppressor and 16.5” barrel. It is chambered in .308 Winchester and available with either 3,5, or 10 round box magazines. Canadian & Australian models have a stainless steel 18” barrel and no flash suppressor.
Apple II Plus - 1976
Long before the iPhone, the iPod or even the Mac, there was the Apple.
Designed by Stephen Wozniak and sold in 1976 with the help of Steve Jobs, the first Apple was a computer strictly for electronics engineers and hobbyists. Although it came fully assembled (unlike the computer kits that began circulating after the invention of the microprocessor), it had no keyboard or power supply and, without a case, all its components could be seen. Nevertheless, interest in the Apple was undeniable. Wozniak and Jobs built dozens of them in a garage in California, in the area well known today as Silicon Valley. To purchase parts, the young men had to sell off some of their most valuable belongings (Wozniak his calculator, Jobs his minibus).
After their first taste of success, Wozniak and Jobs developed a bigger game plan: selling computers to a much wider consumer base. Led by Jobs’ keen business sense, Apple (the name of the company the men formed as well as the computers they sold) found new investors, consulted a public relations firm, and heavily advertised the second computer they offered. Dubbed the Apple II, the machine entered the market in 1977 and became the first personal computer used in many businesses, schools and homes. Designed with the average consumer in mind, the Apple II was housed in a plastic case so that the machine’s parts did not intimidate the user, who instead focused his or her attention on a color, graphical display. The machine, which featured a MOS 6502 microprocessor that supported up to 64KB of memory, also had sound capabilities and came equipped for use with peripherals such as printers.
The manuals provided technical details for companies interested in building peripherals or software to use with the machines, a decision that helped drive sales as more of these products became available. The development of VisiCalc, the first personal computer spreadsheet program, by Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston was a particular boon to Apple’s business. The program, along with the affordable hard disk drive Wozniak invented in 1978, allowed Apple computers to efficiently store and quickly retrieve data, such as a company’s financial information.
In 1978, Apple engineers began developing an improved version of their product, released the following year as the Apple II Plus. The machine offered an improved form of the programming language Applesoft BASIC. Licensed to Apple by Microsoft, early versions of Applesoft had to be loaded as an upgrade onto Apple II machines (a timely and often problematic process), but came already installed on the Plus in the read-only memory, or ROM.
The popularity of these computers made Apple a leader in the early microcomputer industry. In 1978, the company developed an Apple II Europlus to accommodate the languages and power standards of other countries. Production of the Europlus ceased in 1983, a year after the company stopped making the Apple II Plus. The Apple IIe succeeded the Apple II Plus. It cost less and had more power and memory than its predecessor. It also displayed both uppercase and lowercase letters, unlike previous Apples. Other improvements appeared in subsequent models of the Apple II line, which remained a cornerstone in the market throughout the 1980s. In the early 1990s, Apple’s Macintosh computers finally overshadowed the Apple II line, the last of which sold in 1993. By that time, the Mac had been in production for nearly a decade, though it had been slow to catch on among Apple II loyalists.
Allegiance to the Apple II was understandable. After all, the machine dramatically changed the way people worked in the office and, with the development of computer games, played at home. But as the computer market grew, the Apple II was not only up against its sister product, the Mac, but also home computers built by other companies. Today the computer in your home or office may or may not have been made by Apple, but the fact that there is a computer there at all is owed in large part to Apple’s role in making computers “personal.”
How Electric Motors Work
Electric motors are everywhere! In your house, almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) electric motor.
A simple motor has six parts:
- Armature or rotor
- Field magnet
- DC power supplyof some sort
By understanding how a motor works you can learn a lot about magnets, electromagnets and electricity in general. In this article, you will learn what makes electric motors tick.
An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
In the above diagram, you can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power).
The motor being dissected here is a simple electric motor that you would typically find in a toy.
You can see that this is a small motor, about as big around as a dime. From the outside you can see the steel can that forms the body of the motor, an axle, a nylon end cap and two battery leads. If you hook the battery leads of the motor up to a flashlight battery, the axle will spin. If you reverse the leads, it will spin in the opposite direction. Here are two other views of the same motor. (Note the two slots in the side of the steel can in the second shot -- their purpose will become more evident in a moment.)
The nylon end cap is held in place by two tabs that are part of the steel can. By bending the tabs back, you can free the end cap and remove it. Inside the end cap are the motor's brushes. These brushes transfer power from the battery to the commutator as the motor spins:
The axle holds the armature and the commutator. The armature is a set of electromagnets, in this case three. The armature in this motor is a set of thin metal plates stacked together, with thin copper wire coiled around each of the three poles of the armature. The two ends of each wire (one wire for each pole) are soldered onto a terminal, and then each of the three terminals is wired to one plate of the commutator.
The final piece of any DC electric motor is the field magnet. The field magnet in this motor is formed by the can itself plus two curved permanent magnets.
One end of each magnet rests against a slot cut into the can, and then the retaining clip presses against the other ends of both magnets.
Electromagnets and Motors
To understand how an electric motor works, the key is to understand how the electromagnet works. (See How Electromagnets Work for complete details.)
An electromagnet is the basis of an electric motor. You can understand how things work in the motor by imagining the following scenario. Say that you created a simple electromagnet by wrapping 100 loops of wire around a nail and connecting it to a battery. The nail would become a magnet and have a north and south pole while the battery is connected.
Now say that you take your nail electromagnet, run an axle through the middle of it and suspend it in the middle of a horseshoe magnet as shown in the figure below. If you were to attach a battery to the electromagnet so that the north end of the nail appeared as shown, the basic law of magnetism tells you what would happen: The north end of the electromagnet would be repelled from the north end of the horseshoe magnet and attracted to the south end of the horseshoe magnet. The south end of the electromagnet would be repelled in a similar way. The nail would move about half a turn and then stop in the position shown.
You can see that this half-turn of motion is simply due to the way magnets naturally attract and repel one another. The key to an electric motor is to then go one step further so that, at the moment that this half-turn of motion completes, the field of the electromagnet flips. The flip causes the electromagnet to complete another half-turn of motion. You flip the magnetic field just by changing the direction of the electrons flowing in the wire (you do that by flipping the battery over). If the field of the electromagnet were flipped at precisely the right moment at the end of each half-turn of motion, the electric motor would spin freely.
Disney II Magnet School
In 2007, due to its strong history of success, the Walt Disney Magnet School was invited to replicate by the Chicago Public Schools
(CPS). After a rigorous and comprehensive application and review process, it was announced that Disney II would open as a new
Chicago Public School and as a “replication” of CPS's Walt Disney Magnet School. It is our vision that, like Disney, Disney II will
establish a first-rate learning institution that increases student achievement within under-served communities and attracts families
throughout Chicago. Every neighborhood needs a high-quality school to disseminate knowledge, provide opportunity, focus goodwill,
and fertilize the community’s investment in its future. Disney II will serve this need and, like Disney, will realize true equity, bringing
the best model for schooling to families and communities throughout Chicago. Through this model, we will deliver arts and technology
integration. Disney II will celebrate the diversity of its community and will equitably serve all student populations, regardless of
disability, socioeconomic status, and/or cultural background.
Our team at Adams Magnetic Products can provide custom magnets for any number of industrial and consumer uses, but we also carry a range of products for common applications including:
Magnetic pickups are a component of electric guitars. Wire is coiled around the magnet, creating a magnetic field when strings vibrate in the field, the coil detects this and creates a voltage, which causes sound. We supply neodymium, alnico magnets for pickups as well as ceramic magnets for pickups.
Magnets offer a much easier mechanism for opening and closing packaging than latches and snaps. We offer a variety of strengths for all purposes, from flexible magnet material to neodymium magnets.
We supply neodymium, alnico, ceramic, samarium cobalt, and high energy flexible magnets for sensor applications. They can be used to sense position, velocity, and/or direction and they come in shapes, sizes, and prices for every possible use.
We manufacture and distribute magnets for use in motors, generators, and actuators. When strength is of paramount importance, choose rare earth magnets like samarium cobalt or neodymium. For more lightweight applications, ferrite (ceramic) magnets are often suitable.
Our magnet sheets, receptive material, latches, and assemblies can all be used to create signs and POP displays for retail and other applications. Our clients appreciate our fast turnaround for custom orders.
Neodymium disc and rod magnets are widely used for motor, sensor and holding applications
Adams offers a wide range of flexible magnet strips, and can cut, slit or score the product to your specifications
We stock Alnico rod magnets in Grade 5, and can supply Grade 8 upon request
Our flexible magnetic sheeting is ideal for seamless, large-scale signs, screen printing and displays
Round Base Magnets
Adams supplies the following round base magnet assemblies from stock, with dimensions listed in inches.
Samarium Cobalt Magnets
Samarium Cobalt (or SmCo) magnets are strong permanent magnets made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt.
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Excerpted from "Engineering Superconductivity," ed. Peter J. Lee, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2001