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The realism of literature had a great impact on the art of the late nineteenth century, being a key piece in the history of art that broke with the previous one, romanticism.
At the same time, realism in the plastic arts spread throughout Latin America, generating a great social impact.
At that time, this kind of artistic manifestation was not very well known in the region. With this artistic movement, some of the most prominent artists of the time became known, who later became an icon of artistic realism.
Likewise, this movement was of great importance to society since through the works many of the injustices and strong realities of the time were shown. The artists demanded justice for the people who were victims of these situations.
Realism is considered a literary and artistic movement where everyday reality is expressed objectively. Realism is not based on beauty, but, on the contrary, reflects the reality of man in his day-to-day tasks and the struggles he must go through to survive.
Therefore, artists capture the reality that is before their eyes and capture it in their works, this vision being different between each artist, although it used to prevail in relying on the less favored people and the tasks of the proletariat.
Meanwhile, other artists of the time preferred to sweeten the vision they had about reality and later translate it into their works.
The origin of Realism
The realism arises after the French Revolution in 1848, a period in which art abandons political issues and is based almost entirely on the social issues of the time.
From this moment the works were based on illustrate historical reality. Therefore, unlike other artistic styles, this movement does not copy religious or mythological objects.
Technological advances in the post-Second Industrial Revolution era were also linked to this movement.
Also, realism had a lot of social commitment, since this reflected and addressed issues that had been ignored until now.
Thus, they had a great variety of themes, such as work, family, urban and rural landscapes, intimate works, among others.
Through these works realism approached photographyas it conveyed feelings of vitality, new approaches and instantaneity.
Likewise, realism is all about the details, mainly in the concentration of all the essential and typical features of the tasks that they presented in their works.
Characteristics of realism
This movement had certain main characteristics that managed to define it and differentiate it from other artistic manifestations.
- One of the main characteristics of this movement is the reflection on reality. They put aside the aspects of beauty and concentrated completely on everyday life. Both the beautiful and the less beautiful aspects.
- These works had a precise style about what they wanted to convey. In addition, they were quite elaborate, therefore, they had a large amount of details.
- Likewise, they managed to bring to light and express the most intimate feelings through their works, in order to show the reality of each individual and the work they did.
- In the works, they distributed the attention equally, that is, they were based both on the social environments as in the characters. These environments were preferably urban and they were meticulously described in his works.
- The novels were based on completely real events, which were located in specific places.
- Within these works the injustices that are visualized by the artists and reflected in their art are denounced. Likewise, attention is demanded for all dispossessed individuals.
- The authors had the need to describe the interior of the people through their works, therefore, they described in detail their character, temperament and even their behaviors. In addition, depending on each individual who appeared in the work, they could have a sophisticated or common language.
Also, within these works the narrator is omniscient, that is, he knows details of the past, present and can even predict the future of the characters in his works.
- These works present the individuals who make it up with jobs and even trades characteristic of this era, thus representing the way of life of that time.
Authors of Realism
Some of the most important authors and writers of Realism were:
- Honoré de Balzac
- Henri Beyle (Stendhal)
- Gustave Flaubert
- Gustave Freytag
- Charles dickens
- William M. Thackeray
- Perez Galdos
- Leopoldo Alas
- Emilia Pardo Bazán
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky
In Dostoyevsky's case, his work "Crime and Punishment", like "The Brothers Karamazov", are considered the great Russian contributions to realism.
On the historical side, we must highlight Karl Marx, who in his writings on both historical materialism and class struggle, awakens people's attention to the economic and social conditions of the peoples.
It is, in addition, the moment in which doctrines such as socialism, marxism, and subsequently, communism, in direct comparison with the previous systems, liberalism Y the capitalism.
Within this movement, various artists stood out thanks to their works and works carried out. Some of the main exponents of realism were:
It is known as the maximum representative and even as the founder of this movement. This painter maintained a strong political commitment, he believed that painting was a fundamental instrument to defend his ideas.
Also, this painter rejected the reality that enveloped himTherefore, instead of fleeing from it, he painted it.
I was trying show in his works all the rawness of what he observed around him, so that in this way the followers of his art shared with him the feeling of rejection.
Courbet sought that as a result of these feelings of rejection caused by his works, individuals will take action against such injustices.
This is possibly one of the most discussed artists of realism, specifically the French. Millet stood out in this movement for his farmer and peasant works, where he sought to express the innocence of peasant men in comparison with the degradation presented by individuals who were part of industrial society.
Also, the paintings of this representative of realism have undoubted appeal. This made Jean win the favor of the public who watched his works.
Daumier is another leading artist of realism, who was a sculptor, painter and caricaturist of the time, being highly observant in all his facets.
Also, criticized negative aspects of reality quite harshly, although in many situations I could also express them with a little tenderness.
This artist stood out for the ingenuity of his works and for how he performed the interpretation of the situations he observed.
After this movement came magical realism, a term coined by Franz Roh of which we spoke on a previous occasion and which focused mainly on showing the strange as something real or frequent.
After studying History at the University and after many previous tests, Red Historia was born, a project that emerged as a means of dissemination where you can find the most important news about archeology, history and humanities, as well as articles of interest, curiosities and much more. In short, a meeting point for everyone where they can share information and continue learning.