We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
One Hundred Years of Solitude is the maximum work of Gabriel García Márquez, being one of the most important works of Latin American and world literature and the greatest exponent of the Magical realism.
Brief biography of the author: Gabriel García Márquez
The prolific Author Gabriel Garcia Marquez, was born in Aracataca Colombia on March 6, 1926. He was raised by his grandparents and, according to the writer himself, had "a prodigious childhood" in his hometown, located near the sea. The story of that coastal town told by his grandparents is the layer of that personal world that he will call "Macondo”.
At the age of twelve, he moved to Bogotá to study high school, completed these and began his law degree, but financial needs make him dabble in journalism. He was employed by the newspaper "El Espectador" which later sent him to Europe as a correspondent. He established his residence in Rome and then went to Paris where he wrote stories and published Litter, his first novel in 1955.
In that same year, the dictator Rojas Pinilla closed “El Espectador”; and its European correspondent is left in a precarious economic situation. He returned to Colombia and got married with Mercedes barcha his girlfriend since childhood, and mother of his two children; andthey were married for 56 years.
He moved to Caracas, Venezuela, being employed by the Venezuelan magazines Momento and Elite. He was in that country until 1961 when he arrived in Mexico, where he is in charge of producing movie scripts, his creativity did not stop and he published The Colonel has no one to write to him, a short novel that made him famous as a writer.
Several stories and short stories followed him until in 1967 when he published the work that would definitively consecrate him, and would give him the merit of being the main exponent of the Magical realism in the Latin American literature of the 20th century: One Hundred Years of Solitude, published in Argentina.
In 1982 the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature, for his narrative works, where reality and imagination merge into one whole, to produce a realistic magical effect. During the award acceptance ceremony, he gave his heartfelt speech “The loneliness of Latin America”, Where he exposes the tragedy of our countries, forgotten Y looted, under the stigma of "Third world”.
His literary production continued, among the best works he published later, are ‘Love in the Times of Cholera ’ Y 'The General in his Labyrinth', dedicated to the Liberator of Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru; the venezuelan Simon Bolivar. He received innumerable awards and recognitions in different countries.
García Márquez died in Mexico City on April 17, 2014 at the age of 87.
Summary and analysis of ‘One Hundred Years of Solitude’
This novel is the masterful synthesis of all the previous stories alluding to ‘Macondo‘: ‘The funerals of Big Mom ', ‘The Bad Hour ’, 'The Our ’,‘ Isabel Watching it rain ’.
According to his biographer Luis Harss, García Márquez told him before the publication of his novel:
One Hundred Years of Solitude will be like the basis of the puzzle whose pieces I have been giving in previous works. Almost all the keys are given here. The origin and end of the characters and the complete story, without gaps, of Macondo is known.
The magical realism present in history, it manifests itself from various angles in perfect form because fantastic elements get to mix with those of the real world, until constituting a single reality within the work.
The history of Macondo and the Buendía, are united simultaneously in the novel and there is no possibility of separating them. José Arcadio Buendía and Úrsula Iguarán will start a family that will spend the night in Macondo for five generations.
The beginning of their married life was marked by a crime that tormented the patriarch throughout his life, who in the end, due to his ravings and inventions, ends up losing his mind.
Úrsula is the engine of the family, tirelessly maintains everyone's spirits, and her fighting spirit is confused with the premonitions that accompany her and keep her informed of things that no one has told her.
His three children: Aureliano, Jose Arcadio Y Amaranth, they each live in their own world, fighting their personal battles. In turn, Macondo will undergo various transformations that will infuse him with fame and momentary power: economic development due to the installation of the North American banana companies and the exploitation of bananas in the region.
Many fortunes flourished, but when a workers' strike broke out; the authorities repelled them, murdering many of them. The economic progress collapsed and the town was left in a bond and gradual abandonment, which goes hand in hand with that of its inhabitants.
Structural Scheme of One Hundred Years of Solitude
The structuring of One Hundred Years of Solitude is not determined by graphic or numeral divisions; but by the events that are narrated in each part. Thus we can say that the work is composed of 20 untitled chapters.
Chapters I to VI
José Arcadio Buendía and Úrsula Iguarán are a marriage of cousins who fear the birth of a descendant with a pig's tail, due to the relationship between them. This omen triggers a tragedy, because, in a cockfight the loser, Prudencio Aguilar, he yelled at José Arcadio “Let's see if that rooster does the favor for you womanr ”, alluding to the rumor that affirmed the absence of intimate relationships in their marriage after one year of marriage.
A duel ensues between them and José Arcadio kills Prudencio Aguilar by piercing his throat with a spear. The ghost torments him in such a way that they decide to go to the mountains. Together with a group of other families they set out on a tedious exodus that ends when in a dream, the patriarch of the Buendía is told the arrival at the place where he must stay.
Macondo It is the name given in the dream to the place. Three children are established and born: Jose Arcadio, Aureliano Y Amaranth; these names will be repeated in other members of the family.
The economic boom does not take long to appear and the town grows with people arriving from the other side of the swamp. Sleeping sickness appeared in the village and Melquiades the wandering sage cured her with a potion. Thus, he earned the right to stay in Úrsula's house and left them some scrolls written by him, which no one deciphered; they were far from knowing that, in those scrolls, the history both of the family Good day like that of town.
They described the beginning and the finish from both of them. Aureliano Buendía married Remedios Moscote, she died in childbirth. Amaranta grew up and established between her and her foster sister Rebeca, a growing rivalry for the love of Pietro Crespi, her dance teacher.
The situation is resolved when Rebeca and José Arcadio Jr. get married. The civil war begins in the country. Aureliano joins the war, Pietro Crespi commits suicide because Amaranta refuses to marry him. The founder José Arcado Buendía loses his mind and must be tied to the foot of a chestnut tree in the courtyard to prevent him from destroying the house.
Chapters VII to XVI
The war ends, Colonel Aureliano Buendía is taken prisoner along with one of his lieutenants; Condemned to death, he awaits the fateful day, but his brother frees him from being shot and rises up in arms again along with the platoon that had to carry out the order to execute him.
José Arcadio Jr., was killed by a shot in the ear, it was never known who did it. The founding patriarch remained under the chestnut tree; he communicated regularly with Prudencio Aguilar, the friend whom he killed in a duel in his youth.
Aureliano, his son, had a premonition and told Úrsula that his father would die. He died in his bed and a shower of tiny and persistent yellow flowers covered the town.
The wars continued their course until Colonel Aureliano Buendía realized how fatuous the revolution, acknowledging that he had become a bochinche.
He agreed to sign an agreement to end her after twenty years of futile war. Years later, with his head bowed in the chestnut tree in the courtyard, where his father had been tied up for so many years; he died quietly without even realizing it.
Amaranta Buendia he wove in advance a beautiful shroud and the evening of the day he finished it, he died; that was how death had anticipated it when he was sewing with her in the corridor.
Rebeca, her foster sister died within the four walls of her ramshackle house in the cemetery, alone and forgotten by everyone; thus ending the second lonely generation.
Macondo was transformed with the arrival of electricity and other modern inventions, the banana companies arrived, and a false economic boom flooded everything. Exploded strike workers against banana: the state repelled them with fire and more than 3,000 workers were murdered and thrown into the sea.
This tragedy marked the beginning of the end for Macondo. Shortly after, a flood broke out over the town. It rained "four years, eleven months and two days”. Úrsula, decrepit and half-blind, wandered in a feverish activity while predicting that she was only waiting for the rain to stop before she died. The rain stopped and the destruction could be seen:
Macondo was in ruins. In the swamps of the streets were torn pieces of furniture, skeletons of animals covered in red lilies, last memories of the hordes of upstarts who fled Macondo as recklessly as they had arrived. The banana company dismantled its facilities. The wooden houses, the cool terraces where the serene evenings of cards were spent, seemed devastated by an anticipation of the prophetic wind that years later had to delete to Macondo from the face from the earth.
Úrsula died that same year and the suffocating heat of the day she was buried caused a terrible death of birds, which crashed against the walls and broke the screens of the windows to die inside the bedrooms. With the death of Úrsula, the first generation of the Buendía family ceased. She saw her husband and all her children leave.
Chapters of the XVII to the XX
The penultimate descendant of the Buendía, Aureliano, son of Renata Remedios, (great-great-granddaughter of the founders), and Maurice Babylon; is trying to decipher the scrolls of Melquiades. He always accompanies him despite having been dead for many years.
He knew that the language used was Sanskrit. Melquiades indicated the guidelines to follow and he continued with his tireless task without much progress. One afternoon his aunt arrived, his mother's sister with her husband and a luggage so large that it did not fit in the corridor. Amaranta Úrsula settled in the old and dilapidated house, giving herself to the task of restoring it completely. An incestuous love arose between Aureliano and his aunt, hidden from her husband.
They loved each other anywhere, taking advantage of his carelessness, until one day he was absent with the excuse of looking for an airplane. He never returned and the lovers gave free rein to their insane passion, perhaps the only one based on a true love, in a hundred years of family existence.
As time passed Amaranta Ursula she realizes her pregnancy and together with Aureliano tries to determine, without success, the relationship between them. Gradual destruction is taking over the house, ants eat away at its foundations and the undergrowth advances relentlessly:
At night, cuddled in bed, they were not intimidated by the sublunar explosions of ants, nor the roar of moths, nor the constant and clear hiss of the brush growing in the neighboring rooms.
One Sunday afternoon Amaranta Úrsula felt the urges of childbirth. The midwife came and after hours of abuse and malpractice, a robust child was born, whom his father named Aureliano Buendía. His mother observed it and described it in her imagination:
Amaranta Úrsula saw through her tears that he was a great Buendía, solid Y willful Like the Jose Arcadios, with the open and clairvoyant eyes of the Aurelians, and predisposed to start the line again from the beginning and purify it of its pernicious vices and its solitary vocation, because it was the only one in a century that had been engendered with love.
Turning it over, the midwife realized that had a pig's tailThis did not worry them, because they were unaware of the family precedent and the midwife told them that that tail could be cut off when the child changed its teeth.
The voluptuous and fiery blood of Amaranta Ursula it didn't stop flowing, all the women's ploys were tried and it only stopped when her profile was honed, and everyone realized that had died because she smiled again and her alabaster complexion reappeared.
Aureliano, a prisoner of pain, went to a prostitute friend and spent a long time there. Suddenly he remembered his son and returned to find him turned into a shapeless body that was eaten by ants. Paralyzed with stupor, he vividly remembered the epigraph on the Melquiades scrolls:
The First of the line is tied to a tree and to the latest the ants are eating it.
Then he ran in search of the scrolls, knowing that his origin and destiny were written there and he began to decipher them aloud. He did not notice the swirl of dust and debris that Macondo became, but he did know that the doomed families A hundred years of solitude, they have no other chance on earth.
Relationship of the title of the work with the content
When we read One Hundred Years of Solitude, from the first moment we grasp that feeling of spiritual emptiness, uneasiness that the atmosphere of sadness and abandonment is filled. It's hard to stop reading because it grabs your attention right away.
The story begins with a firing squad, where Colonel Aureliano Buendía would be executed. However, the sentence is not carried out because his brother frees him. She takes up arms again and leaves, without even saying goodbye to her mother, who was so worried. His loneliness among people would always torment him:
Lost in the solitude of his immense power, he began to lose his way. He was bothered by the people, who cheered him in the defeated villages, he felt scattered, repeated and more lonely than ever. Alone, abandoned by omens, fleeing the cold that would accompany him to death, he sought a last refuge in Macondo in the heat of his oldest memories.
Her sister Amaranta nurtured a quiet and sad resentment throughout her life and although she repudiated it, she never did anything to dismiss it:
Amaranta was too entangled in the aubergine of her memories to understand those apologetic subtleties, when she listened to Pietro Crespi's waltzes she felt the same desire to cry that she had in adolescence, as if time and lessons were of no use. Sometimes it hurt to have left that trail of misery in its wake, and sometimes it made her so angry that she pricked her fingers with needles, and even more bitter the fragrant and wormy guava of love that she was dragging towards death.
This stigma of loneliness is repeated in all the characters except for Amaranta Ursula, the last woman of the lineage who never lost joy, and saw in her son a hope for his lineage, a wish that was not fulfilled. It was a family marked by the isolation even geographic, in a lonely town full of beliefs, dreams, myths and mixed cultural traditions.
Form of presentation of the facts
The narrator tells the story in the third person, he is a narrator omniscient. Know in depth the moods of the characters and everything related to their beliefs, fears and hidden desires:
“In those moments of relaxation, the true tastes of Meme were revealed. Their happiness was on the other side of discipline, in noisy parties, in the gossip of lovers, in the prolonged confinement with their friends, where they learned to smoke and talked about men's affairs "
The narration is circular; in it a chain of repetitions converges where everything happens again periodically. The same names, personal characteristics are inherited from generation to generation, the facts are similar from beginning to end in the work. For example, the hobby of Aureliano Buendía for deciphering the scrolls of Melquiades and the communication of the wise gypsy with them even though he was dead for years immemorial:
Aureliano Segundo undertook the task of decipher the manuscripts. It was impossible. The letters looked like clothes drying on a wire, and were more like musical writing than literary writing. One fiery noon, as he scrutinized the manuscripts, he felt that he was not alone in the room. Against reverberation of the windowsitting with his hands on his knees, he was Melquiades. Aureliano Segundo recognized him immediately, because that memory hereditary it had been passed down from generation to generation, and had come to him from the memory of his grandfather.
– Salud - said Aureliano Segundo.
"Cheers, young man," said Melquiades.
Let's see now the repetition with the penultimate Aureliano:
Aureliano he did not leave Melquiades's room for a long time. At any time that Santa Sofía de la Piedad entered, he found him absorbed in reading. As happened to Úrsula with Aureliano Segundo when he was studying in the room, Santa Sofía de la Piedad believed that Aureliano spoke alone. Actually, talked with Melquiades. A burning noon, shortly after the death of the twins, saw against the reverberation of the window the gloomy old man in the raven-brimmed hat, like the materialization of a memory that, it was in his memory since long before being born. Aureliano had finished to classify the alphabet of the manuscripts.
Characters from One Hundred Years of Solitude
- José Arcadio Buendía. Founder of the family.
- Úrsula Iguarán de Buendía. Founder of the family.
- José Arcadio Buendía. Son.
- Aureliano Buendía. Son.
- Amaranta Buendía. Daughter.
- Adoptive daughter of the Buendía.
- Son of José Arcadio (son of the patriarch) and Pilar Ternera.
- Aureliano José. Son of Aureliano and Pilar Ternera.
- The 17 Aurelians. Children of Colonel Aureliano Buendía in 17 different women.
- Santa Sofia de la Piedad. Concubine of Arcadio.
- Remedios la Bella. Daughter of Arcadio and Santa Sofía de la Piedad.
- José Arcadio Segundo. Son of Arcadio and Santa Sofía de la Piedad.
- Aureliano Segundo. Son of Arcadio and Santa Sofía de la Piedad.
- Fernanda del Carpio. Wife of Aureliano Segundo.
- José Arcadio Buendía. Son of Aureliano Segundo and Fernanda del Carpio.
- Renata Remedios (Meme) daughter of Aureliano Segundo and Fernanda del Carpio.
- Amaranta Úrsula. Daughter of Aureliano Segundo and Fernanda del Carpio.
- Son of Meme and Mauricio Babilonia.
- Aureliano Buendía. The last pig-tailed offspring; son of Aureliano with his aunt Amaranta Úrsula.
- Gaston. Husband of Amaranta Úrsula.
- Gerineldo Marquez.
- The Moscote sisters.
- Moscote Remedies. Wife of Colonel Aureliano Buendía.
- Don Apolinar Moscote.
- Visitation of India.
- Taste the Indian. Visitation brother.
- The gypsy with supernatural attitudes who wrote the beginning and the end of the story of the Buendía family and Macondo.
- Pilar veal. Mother of the first two members of the second generation Buendía.
- Pietro Crespi. The dance teacher caused the hatred between Amaranta and Rebeca.
- Petra cotes. Concubine of Aureliano Segundo.
- Father Antonio Isabel.
- Mauricio Babylon. Meme's lover and father of the penultimate Aureliano.
- Father Nicanor Reina.
- Friends of Aureliano.
- The Catalan wise man.
- Patricia Brown.
- Mercedes the apothecary.
- The girls who went to bed out of hunger.
One Hundred Years of Solitude Environment
The events take place in Macondo, a town created by the novelist's imagination; based on some experiential aspects of the town where he spent his childhood. It is a closed space, it begins with the novel, grows with it, and ends with its conclusion.
In a few years, Macondo It was a more orderly and laborious village than any of those known until then by its 300 inhabitants. Was truly a happy village, where no one was older than thirty and where no one had died.
Macondo I was already terrifying swirling dust and debris centrifuged by the wrath of the biblical hurricane, when Aureliano skipped eleven pages so as not to waste time on all too well-known facts, and began to decipher the moment he was living.
The characters of the novel move in an environment of sadness that nothing can evade. Personal conflicts and confrontations between family members give a tragic aura to the environment. The outstanding elements are the loneliness and the hate that, they give no truce for firm feelings:
Amaranta felt humiliated and told Pietro Crespi with a virulent resentment that she was willing to prevent her sister's wedding, even if her own corpse had to walk through the door..
Úrsula never forgave what she considered an inconceivable lack of respect, and when they returned from church, she forbade the newlyweds to enter the house again. For her it was as if they had died.
She felt so alone that she sought the useless company of her forgotten husband under the chestnut tree. -Look at what we have left, he said_ Look at the empty house, our children scattered around the world, and the two of us alone again like him ”. beginning_ José Arcadio Buendía, sunk in an abyss of unconsciousness, was deaf to his laments.
Heartbreak is manifested throughout the work. Incestuous relationships materialize from beginning to end. Marriages occur for many reasons, but almost never for love. The only relationships that show this are those of José Arcadio and Rebeca and those of Amaranta Úrsula and Aureliano, his nephew:
In that Macondo forgotten even by the birds, where the dust and heat had become so tenacious that it was difficult to breathe, secluded by loneliness and love and by the loneliness of love in a house where it was almost impossible to sleep because of the noise of the red ants, Aureliano and Amaranta Úrsula were the only happy beings, and the happiest on earth.
Different topics covered in the novel
In One Hundred Years of Solitude a song composed. It is not difficult to identify the two stories that converge in the work: one is that of the Buendía family, the other is the town founded by them and another group of adventurers Macondo.
From generation to generation the fear, fed by Úrsula, of having a son with a pig's tail persists. This fear is based on the precedent of a cousin who, being the son of parents with close blood ties, was born with this alien appendage to the human race.
Due to the fact of being cousins, Úrsula and José Arcadio felt this latent threat about their family. It was fulfilled when the last descendant was born, son of Amaranta Úrsula and her nephew Aureliano, who had a pig's tail.
The history of Macondo it takes place between a primitive time during its foundation; a false progress with the banana companies and their slow and gradual destruction along with that of the Buendía family until an apocalyptic wind wiped them off the face of the earth.
Verisimilitude of the story in One Hundred Years of Solitude
In this play García Márquez uses Magic Realism to the maximum, also called by Alejo Carpentier «The Real Wonderful». Through this technique, fantasy and reality are mixed in such a way that they become a whole, indistinct and accepted by the reader as a single reality.
We see a repeated use of hyperbole, repetition and enumeration, as the appropriate means to give the fantastic a touch of reality. Examples of this are the enumeration of the exploits of Colonel Aureliano Buendía:
Colonel Aureliano Buendía promoted thirty-two armed uprisings and lost them all. He had seventeen children of seventeen different women, who were all exterminated one after other in a single night before the oldest turned thirty-five. Escaped to fourteen attacks on Seventy-three ambushes and a firing squad. Survived a load of strychnine in the coffee that would have been enough to kill a horse.
It further highlights the presentation of implausible facts as everyday affairs:
Amaranta did not feel frustrated, but on the contrary freed from all bitterness, because death gave him the privilege of announcing himself several years in advance He saw a blazing noon, sewingwith her in the corridor shortly after Meme left for school. He recognized her on the spot, and there was nothing terrifying about death, because she was a woman dressed in blue with long hair, looking a bit old-fashioned, and with a certain resemblance to Pilar Ternera at the time she helped them in kitchen trades. Several times Fernanda was present and did not see her, even though she was so real, so human, that on some occasion asked to Amaranta the favor that he threaded a needle.
Examples like this are found in the entire length of the novel.
The language used is formal, literary and cultured, with some variations put into the mouths of the characters. The narrative tone of the author is the unifying agent in this novel. The narrator presents the facts directly, without interpretation or judgment; without differentiating between reality and fantasy quite naturally.
Examples of expressive forms in One Hundred Years of Solitude
Úrsula had to make a great effort to fulfill her promise to die when it clears. The bursts of lucidity that were so rare during the rain became more frequent from August, when the arid wind began to blow, suffocating the rose bushes and petrifying the swamps, and finally scattering the scorching dust that it covered over Macondo. always the rusted zinc roofs and the ancient almond trees.
Rebecca, contrary to what could be expected, was the most beautiful. She had a diaphanous complexion, large, calm eyes, and magical hands that seemed to make the embroidery weave with invisible threads. Amaranta, the youngest, was a bit without grace, but had the natural distinction the inner stretch of the dead grandmother. Next to them, although he already revealed his father's physical drive, Arcadio looked like a child.
"We won't go," he said. Here we stay, because here we have had a son.
We still don't have a dead man, "he said. You are from nowhere as long as you don't have a dead person under the ground.
_If it is necessary for me to die for them to stay here, I will die.
_Instead of thinking about your crazy novels, you should take care of your children_ he replied _, Look at them how they are, abandoned to the good of God, just like donkeys.
"Well," he said. Tell them come help me get the things out of the drawers.
Literary resources in One Hundred Years of Solitude
Her green skin, her round belly taut as a drum, revealed ill health and hunger older than herself..
The history of the family was a cog of irreparable repetitions, a rotating wheel that would have kept turning until eternity, had it not been for the progressive and irremediable wear of the axle.
He was tormented by the immense desolation with which the dead man had looked at him from the rain, the deep nostalgia with which he longed for the living.
He waited for the hot flush in his ears to fade and gave his voice a serene emphasis of maturity.
José Arcadio followed her all night looking for the smell of smoke that she had in her armpits.
The music came out first in spurts, then in a spring of convoluted notes.
On rainy afternoons, embroidering with a group of friends in the corridor of the begonias, she lost the thread of the conversation and a tear of nostalgia salted her palate.
One night, while Meme was in the bathroom, Fernanda came into her bedroom by chance, and there were so many butterflies that she could hardly breathe.
Surrounded by the voracity of nature, Aureliano and Amaranta Úrsula continued to grow oregano and begonias. The rest of the house surrendered to the siege of destruction.
Commentary on One Hundred Years of Solitude
One Hundred Years of Soledad is a novel belonging to the so-called Hispanic American “boom”. It presents a renovation in two main aspects: the narrative technique and the plane of the theme.
The fundamental aspect is no longer the complaint, but the creation of aesthetic works. In relation to the temporal planes, a drastic change is noted due to the chronological disorder, with multiple alterations that the reader must reconstruct.
The sudden changes of planes and the panoramic views, submerge the narration in a whirlwind of new sensations, unknown and yet pleasing to the senses.
The inner world of the characters is revealed from within, exposing the intimate values and the miseries of the human character. The anguish of today's man and his inner loneliness are revealed in this work, representative of contemporary narrative.
The world of hallucination and dreams, the unconscious and the conscious have a wide place in this novel where, natural and the supernatural They go hand in hand in perfect agreement.
Gullón, Ricardo. "García Márquez or the Art of Counting".
Vargas Llosa, Mario. "García Márquez, History of a Deicide". Monte Ávila Editores. Caracas Venezuela.
García Márquez, Gabriel. «One Hundred Years of Solitude». Editorial Sudamericana. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Sambrano Urdaneta, Oscar and Milliani Domingo. «Hispano-American Literature. Volume II ». Editorial Text. Caracas. 1972,