Were commandants in Kamchatka from the Army or the Navy?

Were commandants in Kamchatka from the Army or the Navy?

The Imperial Russian Navy operated out of Kronstadt, next to St. Petersburg. Well before sending the Nadezhda and Neva into the Pacific in 1803, the empire had Pacific ports like Okhotsk, accessible by land from Yakutsk, as well as several in Kamchatka, generally reached by sea. Okhotsk had a shipyard, as well as a commandant who was tried by the Admiralty (thanks @PieterGeerkens), but I can't tell yet if the Kamchatka commandants were in the navy too.

During Catherine the Great's rule (1762-1796), to which military force and commandant were the Kamchatka detachments in Bolsheretsk and Nizhnekamchatsk responsible?


The general rule is that the command is with the most relevant officer.

E.g., an amphibious operation is commanded by the naval commander. I.e., when a ship lands an amphibious force on an enemy shore, the overall commanding officer is the ship's captain, not the amphibious force's commander. Moreover, even if the ship is lost and all troops are now ashore, the command remains with the ship's captain.

Similarly, a port will normally be commanded by a naval officer (unless it is under a land siege).

I know the answer is even broader than the question…


World War II Edit

Forces from the Reserve were assigned by the Stavka (Supreme High Command) to individual fronts (army groups) that were conducting major operations. These formations were designed to support any forms of operations but especially penetrations and exploitations in accordance with the Soviet deep battle doctrine. [1]

Beginning in 1943, the formations and units in the Reserve ranged from battalions to whole armies (e.g. the Reserve Armies), with an emphasis on artillery and mechanised formations, and were capable of large-scale, independent operations. For example, as of April 1943, an artillery penetration corps contained as many as 1,500 gun tubes and rocket launchers each. Tank armies, which also emerged in 1943, included one or two tank corps and one mechanised corps, plus supporting units. These mechanised formations were capable of conducting operational exploitations of up to 500 kilometers. [2]

In modern Russia, the only reserve of the Supreme Commander is the Airborne Forces. Most of the military units of the Airborne Forces, which are part of the Reserve of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, are also guards. With reference to the Russian airborne troops, as the reserve of the Supreme Commander, officially used two largely equivalent term: reserves and fund - the latter reflects an instrumental status of forces among a set of other measures of military and non-military nature for the implementation of state power at the disposal of the supreme leader of the country.

The airborne troops have always been the reserve of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief. The most important, but not the only factor that makes the Airborne being a reserve force of the Supreme Commander, is their mobility - to ensure the defense of the territory of such a large scale country as Russia, is only possible with the use of airborne compounds, which at any time could be parachuted to any theater of operations. To accomplish this task, the Airborne Forces are the most suitable, which de facto fulfill the function of rapid reaction forces.


Command: Italy’s Far Eastern Army and Navy Forces

ITALY’S SURRENDER TO the Allies in September 1943 led to open hostilities between its Far Eastern forces and the Imperial Japanese Army. The Italians had maintained a presence in the Far East from 1901, following the conclusion of the Boxer Rebellion, when— along with many other European nations— it was granted international concessions in China. To secure its trade rights and protect its interests in common with the other imperialist powers, Italy stationed troops close to its cantonments in Beijing, Shanghai and Tientsin and maintained a small naval presence. For the next four decades Italy built up its forces in China.

When Benito Mussolini signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Japan in September 1940, it placed Italy in the position of junior partner in the Axis alliance against Great Britain and its Commonwealth. For the next three years the naval presence in China and the Far East increased. Two Italian gunboats, Lepanto and Carlotto, were moored in Shanghai an auxiliary cruiser, Calitea II and the colonial sloop Eritrea were in Kobe and the steamboat Conte Verde also was in Shanghai. In addition, the Germans persuaded the Italians to convert their large submarines into cargo carriers, which allowed the Reich to receive large quantities of rubber, quinine and assorted raw materials from the Japanese. The Italians also let the Germans use their submarines to deliver valuable cargoes of optical instruments, weapons and assorted stores to the Japanese.

The 1943 armistice meant Italy was now fighting alongside the Allies, and the position of its soldiers and sailors in the Far East became precarious at best. Eritrea was at sea when the armistice was announced and immediately steamed through the Indian Ocean to Colombo in Ceylon, avoiding the Japanese air and sea search for Italian vessels. Some Italian naval crews were determined not to allow their ships to be captured by the Japanese. The day after the armistice, Calitea II was scuttled in Kobe Harbor, soon followed by Lepanto, Carlotto and Conte Verde at Shanghai. The crews of those vessels were sent to prisoner of war camps and used as slave labor by theJapanese for the rest of the war, except those who continued to fight for the Axis cause on the side of the new Italian Fascist state.

The Japanese captured three of the remaining Italian submarines— Cappellini, Guiliani and Torelli— even though the crews had stated that they wished to continue to fight for the Axis.The crews were treated with the same brutality the Japanese had shown to Allied prisoners of war, but were eventually reprieved when their former boats were handed over to the German navy. The Germans had established a U-boat base at Penang, Malaya, and the Italian sailors continued to serve the Axis cause until the German surrender in May 1945, operating their former boats alongside German U-boatmen. The submarine Cagni made a dash for South Africa on learning of the armistice and surrendered to the British. Following the surrender of Nazi Germany, some 20 Italian submariners continued working for the Japanese navy. Torelli stayed in Japanese service until August 30, 1945 the Italian anti-aircraft gunners on board shot down a North American B-25 Mitchell bomber, ironically the final accredited kill scored by a unit of the Japanese navy during World War II.

For the Italian military forces stationed on land in China the armistice meant certain internment in Japanese prisoner of war camps. A small mixed army and navy force of 100 men, under the command of a Lt. Cmdr. Baldassarre of the Royal Italian Navy, garrisoned the Beijing radio station, within the Italian concession. Although lightly armed with infantry weapons, Baldassarre was determined to resist a Japanese infantry regiment with approximately 1,000 men supported by artillery and 15 light tanks. Outnumbered 10-to-l the Italians fought for more than 24 hours before surrendering. Afterward, the majority of Italians wanted to continue fighting on the Axis side. The 29 who did not were transported to a Japanese prisoner of war camp in Korea.

At Tientsin there was a more formidable force than at Beijing. Because Tientsin was a commercial center for Italian trade with China, many Italian civilians, including women and children, lived there. The routine rape of white women and general maltreatment of noncombatants captured by the Japanese army was well known, and the Italian consul had withdrawn his staff and the Italian nationals into the area of the Italian concession defended by some 600 soldiers and sailors under Carlo dell’Acqua’s command. Considerably better equipped than the Italians at Beijing, this group had four emplaced 75mm guns. In addition, the garrison had a week’s supply of rations and medicine.

The Italians, however, would once again be outnumbered 10-to-l, this time against a Lt. Col. Tanaka, who commanded nearly 6 ,000 Japanese troops, reinforced with light armored vehicles and artillery. Guns had also been deployed on the river to fire into the Italian cantonment, and air support was available from a Japanese army air force bomber squadron.

Tanaka did not attack immediately, but instead called upon dell’Acqua to surrender. The Italian officers in charge of the defense conferred and refused. The Japanese opened a brief artillery barrage to demonstrate what the garrison was up against. The Italians also learned that Tanaka would shortly be reinforced by an entire Japanese division, along with tanks and more artillery. That persuaded many of the officers that resistance was futile. Although a great majority of the regular Italian soldiers and sailors wanted to fight on, in order to save lives dell’Acqua decided to surrender.

The Italian garrison of Tientsin was marched into Japanese captivity, with the exception of 170 men who pledged their allegiance to the new Fascist Italian Social Republic established after Mussolini’s liberation by German paratroopers on September 12, 1943.These men fought alongside the Germans and Japanese for the rest of the war. The remainder of the Tientsin garrison was dispersed to prison camps outside the city or taken to Korea and Japan, where they suffered alongside other Allied POWs until September 1945.

Originally published in the September 2004 issue of World War II. To subscribe, click here.


Were commandants in Kamchatka from the Army or the Navy? - History


the War Department and the Navy Department occupied separate buildings next to the White House from 1819-1879
Source: Library of Congress, Map of the city of Washington D.C

When the Federal government moved to Washington, DC in 1800, the Navy and War departments moved into two different buildings located on Pennsylvania Avenue between 21st and 22nd Streets NW. They remained separate departments until creation of the Department of Defense in 1947, and used separate buildings for separate headquarters for much of that time.

The Navy initially occupied one of the "Six Buildings" on the north side of Pennsylvania Avenue. They were privately-owned buildings that were occupied by various Federal offices that could not be squeezed into the Treasury Department Building next to the White House. The Army moved into a building on the south side of the street, but a fire on November 8, 1800 destroyed the building and all the War Department records. 1


the Navy Department headquarters was in one of the "Six Buildings" (a seventh on the far right was later added) on Pennsylvania Avenue
Source: US Army Center of Military History, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army (p.10)

Soon after President James Madison was inaugurated in 1801, a second major building comparable to the Treasury Department was completed on the southwest side of the White House. It was constructed parallel to the Treasury Department, on the southeast side. Both the Army and Navy relocated to the new public building, as did the State Department.

On August 24, 1814, the British occupied Washington and burned that public building, as well as the Executive Mansion and the Treasury Department building. This time, the War Department lost few records in the fire, having removed them in advance after recognizing the British would occupy the capital. 2

The walls of the two-story brick building survived the fire. By 1816, it had been reconstructed and was occupied again by the War, Navy, and State departments. Space was tight, and in 1819, the State Department and War Department moved out. The State Department moved into its own new building northeast of the White House, north of the Treasury Department building.


the War Department moved in 1819 to a two-story brick office with an Ionic portico facing Pennsylvania Avenue
Source: US Army Center of Military History, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army (p.11)

The War Department moved into a comparable structure northwest of the White House, north of its old location where the Navy Department remained in the Southwest Executive Building. It also occupied the Winder Building across the street after it completion in 1848.

During the Civil War, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton added two floors to the War Department building. Abraham Lincoln would walk over from the White House to get updates from the War Department telegraph operators in the Army's headquarters. 3



after 1862, the War Department building was four stories tall
Source: New York Public Library, National and Metropolitan Scenery, Washington, D.C. (sometime between 1865-1885) and The War Department, Washington, D.C (sometime between 1864-1871)

The Navy Department also added two floors to its separate headquarters, south of the War Department's building.


the Navy Department expanded its headquarters during the Civil War to a four-story building, comparable to the War Department expansion
Source: Library of Congress, The U.S. Navy Department, 17th St. near Pa. Ave. (between 1867-69)

In 1870, the US Congress decided to construct a new building west of the White House to house the State War, and Navy departments. The new State, War, and Navy Building was constructed in stages. After the War and Navy departments moved into a portion of the new building in 1879, their old homes (known then as the Northwest Executive Building and Southwest Executive Building) were demolished to make room for the rest of what is known today as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building. 4


area where the Pentagon would be located, in 1878
Source: Library of Congress, Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington (by G. M. Hopkins, 1878)

After World War I, the Navy Department left the State, War, and Navy Building. In 1918, the Navy built a "temporary" Main Navy Building on the Mall, with nine wings to house all the officers, staff, and civilian workers at headquarters. The War Department built an eight-wing "temporary" Munitions Building next door. When completed, the structures filled the south side of Constitution Avenue from 17 th Street to 21 st Street. 5


the Main Navy Building (foreground) and the War Department's Munitions Building were constructed in 1918, along with the Reflecting Pool in front of the Lincoln Memorial
Source: Naval History and Heritage Command, NH 2502 "Main Navy" and "Munitions" Buildings

Most offices of the War Department moved to the Munitions Building in 1930, and Congress renamed the State, War, and Navy Building as the "Department of State Building." The office of the General of the Armies of the United States remained in the Department of State Building, until it finally moved to the Munitions Building in 1938.


the Munitions Building housed the War Department headquarters between 1938-41
Source: US Army Center of Military History, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army (p.14)


the Munitions Building at 20th Street and Constitution Avenue (Reflecting Pool at top of photo)
Source: The Pentagon: The First Fifty Years (p.8)

The Main Navy Building and the Munitions Building were long-lived rather than temporary.


National Mall in World War II, showing the "temporary" buildings and Memorial Bridge over the Potomac River
Source: National Park Service, HPC_001930

Those 1918 structures were finally demolished in 1970. Constitution Gardens, with a pool and landscaped knolls, was constructed on their site. 6


in 1938, the War Department moved its headquarters from the State, War, and Navy Building next to the White House to the Munitions Building next to the Reflecting Pool
Source: National Park Service, 'Temporary' War Department Buildings

After President Roosevelt was elected to a second term in 1936, he struggled with an isolationist electorate and his concerns about the rise of Nazi Germany. British purchases of war goods helped revive the American economy, and Roosevelt sought to expand the Army and Navy in order to prepare for a future conflict.

The Munitions Building was not large enough to house ever-expanding Army staff overseeing mobilization and preparing options for an American response to European conflict. The War Department arranged for construction of a new building west of the White House at 21 st and C Street NW, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, DC. That location was just two blocks away from the Munitions Building.


some War Department offices moved to a new buildng in Foggy Bottom at the start of World War II, but the Harry S Truman Building is now headquarters for the State Department
Source: Wikipedia, Harry S Truman Building

After Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson visited the new building near the end of construction in April, 1941, he decided that it still would be too small. He needed an additional, larger structure to consolidate the 24,000 workers in offices scattered among 17 separate sites plus the 10,000 or more new workers he anticipated hiring in response to the war in Europe.

Secretary Stimson was considering just the requirements of the US Army for space. In 1941, the US Navy was a separate Department. It planned to expand beyond its headquarters in the Main Navy Building, but not to build a new headquarters. The Navy planned to take over the Munitions Building next door, once the US Army left that structure.

Stimson and Roosevelt decided the solution to the office space problem was to move some Army offices into the Foggy Bottom buiilding, and also build a new headquarters for the War Department in Virginia. The Federal government owned large tracts along the Potomac River waterfront acquired during the Civil War, when the Union Army seized the Custis-Lee Mansion and Arlington estate of the family of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. 7

The new building intended to house the War Department in Foggy Bottom is now part of the US State Department's headquarters. The new structure to house the War Department, built across the Potomac River in Virginia, became known as the Pentagon.

After the US Congress passed the National Security Act of 1947, the Pentagon became the headquarters for the first consolidated Department of Defense in the history of the United States. The secretaries of the Navy and Army lost their status as members of the President's cabinet overseeing separate Departments, and became subordinate to a new Secretary of Defense. The Air Force became a separate agency, and the Navy was forced to move its headquarters from the Main Navy Building on Constitution Avenue to the same building as the Army and Air Force.

The Pentagon

Military Bases in Virginia


the structure planned in the 1930's to be the headquarters of the US War Department is now part of the State Department's headquarters building in Foggy Bottom
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online


2. The Navy was disbanded following the Revolutionary War.

British naval ships in Boston Harbor. during the Revolutionary War.

The Continental Navy, state navies, Washington’s flotilla and privateers all battled the British during the Revolutionary War. But some notable victories aside𠅌ommander John Paul Jones, for instance, captured the frigate HMS Serapis after purportedly yelling, “I have not yet begun to fight!”—the American presence at sea was minimal compared to that of Britain’s all-powerful Royal Navy. 

By August 1781 the Continental Navy had shrunk to just two active warships. Luckily for the colonists, France had joined their side. In a major September 1781 naval battle, the French gained control of the Chesapeake Bay, thus paving the way for the British surrender at Yorktown the following month. With money tight and no clear reason to maintain them, the Continental Navy’s remaining ships were then sold or given away. The last to go, in 1785, was Alliance, a frigate that just two years earlier had participated in the final skirmish of the war off the Florida coast.


7 Bad-ass Women Who Made Military History

Women have been fighting and sacrificing for this country much longer than you may think -- one even going as far as disguising herself as a man to serve.

In September 2017, a Marine officer passed the rigorous requirements to become the very first woman infantry officer. In addition, two officers made history by becoming the first women to graduate from the traditionally all-male U.S. Army Ranger School.

Women have blazed a trail of innovation and made military history. Here are some pioneering women who forever changed the modern military landscape:

Private Cathay Williams, aka William Cathay Post-Civil War Born a slave near Jefferson City, Missouri, Cathay Williams was the first known African American woman to serve in the United States Army -- enlisting under the name "William Cathay" to hide the fact she was a woman. "The regiment I joined wore the Zouave uniform and only two persons, a cousin and a particular friend, members of the regiment, knew that I was a woman," Williams said, according to Army archives. "They were partly the cause of my joining the Army. Another reason was I wanted to make my own living and not be dependent on relations or friends." Documents show Williams served alongside the men in her unit -- without being recognized as a woman -- until she contracted smallpox and became ill. The disease caused her to be in and out of military hospitals until it was discovered she was female and immediately discharged.

Private Opha May Johnson World War I

Opha May Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the United States Marine Corps. She joined the Marine Corps Reserve in 1918 during World War I, officially becoming the first female Marine.

Johnson, due to the good fortune of being first in line that day, was the first of over 300 women to enlist in the United States Marine Corps Women's Reserve during World War I. According to 1918 newspaper articles, as well as the published history of Women Marines in World War I, Johnson's first duties were as a clerk at Marine Corps headquarters, managing the records of other female reservists who joined after she did.

On 11 July 1919, the American Legion granted a charter to the first post of women's Marine Corps reservists. Known as Belleau Wood Post No. 1, its membership consisted of 90 women who had worked at Headquarters Marine Corps. Johnson was a charter member of this post. At the end of World War I the Marine Corps, like all services, began the steady disenrollment of women, including Mrs. Johnson, from active service. After her brief military career, she became a clerk in the War Department.

Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Murray Hopper World War II, Korean War, Vietnam

Known as "Amazing Grace," Commodore Hopper's importance in U.S. naval history is apparent everywhere you turn: a destroyer was named after her (USS Hopper, DDG-70), as was the Cray XE6 "Hopper" supercomputer. As founder of the COBOL programming language, a precursor to many of the software code approaches of today, her work is legendary among computer scientists and mathematicians. In 1943, during World War II, she joined the United States Naval Reserves. She was assigned to the Bureau of Ordinance Computation Project. There she became the third programmer of the world's first large-scale computer, called the Mark I.

When she saw it, all she could think about was taking it apart and figuring it out. "That was an impressive beast. She was fifty-one feet long, eight feet high, and five feet deep," said Hopper. She would subsequently master the Mark I, Mark II, and Mark III computers. While trying to repair the Mark I she discovered a moth caught in a relay. She taped the moth in the log book and from that coined the phrase "a bug in the computer."

During her career she also mastered the UNIVAC I, the first large-scale electronic computer, and created a program that translated symbolic math codes into machine language. This breakthrough allowed programmers to store codes on magnetic tape and re-call them when they were needed -- essentially the first compiler. In 1966, Hopper retired from the Naval Reserves as a Commander, but was called back to active duty one year later at the Navy's request, to help standardize its computer programs and their languages.

In 1983, a bill was introduced by Rep. Philip Crane (D-Ill.) who said, "It is time the Navy recognized the outstanding contributions made by this officer recalled from retirement over a decade and a half ago and promote her to the rank of Commodore."

The bill was approved by the House, and at the age of 76, she was promoted to Commodore by special Presidential appointment. Her rank was elevated to rear admiral in November 1985, making her one of few women admirals in the history of the United States Navy. By the time of her death in 1992, Hopper was renowned as a mentor and a giant in her field, with honoree doctorates from over 30 universities. She was laid to rest with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

Col. Ruby Bradley World War II and Korean War A survivor of two wars, a prison camp and near starvation, Colonel Ruby Bradley is one of the most decorated women in U.S. military history. Her military record included 34 medals and citations of bravery, including two Legion of Merit medals, two Bronze stars, two Presidential Emblems, the World War II Victory Medal and the U.N. Service Medal. She was also the recipient of the Florence Nightingale Medal, the Red Cross' highest international honor. West Virginia native Ruby Bradley joined the U.S. Army Nurse Corps as a surgical nurse in 1934. In 1941, she was taken captive by Japanese forces while serving in the Philippines. She and fellow imprisoned nurses continued to care for their fellow prisoners, earning them the nickname "angels in fatigues." During her 37 months in captivity, Bradley assisted in 230 major operations and the delivery of 13 babies. "A lot of people died in the last few months," she told the Washington Post in 1983. "There were several deaths a day, mostly the older ones, who just couldn't take it." At the Santo Tomas camp, the military and civilian captives dubbed Bradley and the other imprisoned nurses who provided them with medical treatment "Angels in Fatigues." The POWs subsisted mainly on rice--half a cup in the morning and half a cup at night--but Bradley shared her limited rations with the children. "I'd save part of my food for the children later in the day, when they started crying and being hungry," she said. Bradley also learned to be "a pretty good thief. I would take food and put it in my pockets for the children," she said. By the time the camp was liberated by the Americans on Feb. 3, 1945, the formerly 110-pound Bradley had shrunk to 84 pounds. In February 1945, U.S. troops stormed the gates of the Japanese camp and liberated Bradley and her fellow prisoners, where she had been held captive for three years. Bradley continued serving in the Army Nurse Corps after her release and then in the Korean War. She dedicated 30 years to the military, becoming only the third woman in U.S. history to be promoted to the rank of colonel.

Commander Darlene Iskra Gulf War Commander Darlene Iskra, who served in the Navy 21 years and was the first female to command a U.S. Navy ship. Dr. Iskra retired from the Navy in 2000 and earned her Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Maryland.

She is the author of "Breaking Through the 'Brass' Ceiling: Elite Military Women's Strategies for Success" and "Women in the United States Armed Forces: A Guide to the Issues." The story of her first command is below:

I hadn't realized what a big deal being the first woman to command a ship would be until I arrived in Naples, and on my desk was a stack of congratulatory cards and letters from people I didn't even know!” she said. “I also got a few cards from people I hadn't heard from in literally decades! Soon afterwards, the public affairs officer from Naples asked to do an interview. That was the one that was published soon after I took command, to news outlets all over the world, even in Saudi Arabia, which freaked my husband out, as even back then we were worried about terrorism. About three weeks after I took command, Desert Storm started in the Gulf and we were ordered underway towards the Suez Canal to intervene in case the Canal was mined or otherwise blocked. We picked up an [Explosive Ordnance Disposal] team in La Maddalena, Sardinia, and headed to an area on the Mediterranean side of the canal, where we stayed for the entire duration of the war. No mines were laid, though we did have several interesting incidents, but those are stories for another day.

Lt. Col. Martha McSally Iraq War

Martha McSally was the first American woman to fly in combat following the 1991 lifting of the prohibition of women in combat. She flew the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II 'Warthog' close air support aircraft over Iraq and Kuwait during Operation Southern Watch. She is also the first woman to command a USAF fighter squadron, the 354th Fighter Squadron (354 FS) based at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.

In 2002, during her tenure as a pilot, she also was embroiled in a controversial lawsuit requiring all female military personnel to wear the Muslim abaya, a black head-to-toe robe worn in certain Muslim cultures and perceived as a sign of subordination to men.

She won the case against Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and the U.S. Department of Defense, on the grounds that the military's dress policy violates McSally's constitutional rights to equal protection and the freedoms of religion and speech.

McSally, now a Republican Congresswoman, quickly points out that the oath for a military officer - to support and defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic - is the same for a member of Congress. "I served my country in uniform for 26 years," the 46-year-old said in an interview. "I personally consider this just a continuation of my service to my country."

Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester Iraq War

Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester of the 617th Military Police Company, a National Guard unit out of Richmond, Ky., is the first woman to receive the Silver Star since World War II for exceptional valor. Hester's squad was shadowing a supply convoy March 20, 2005 when anti-Iraqi fighters ambushed the convoy. The squad moved to the side of the road, flanking the insurgents and cutting off their escape route.

Hester led her team through the "kill zone" and into a flanking position, where she assaulted a trench line with grenades and M203 grenade-launcher rounds. She and Staff Sgt. Timothy Nein, her squad leader, then cleared two trenches, at which time she killed three insurgents with her rifle. When the fight was over, 27 insurgents were dead, six were wounded, and one was captured. Hester, 23, who was born in Bowling Green, Ky., and later moved to Nashville, Tenn., said she was surprised when she heard she was being considered for the Silver Star. "I'm honored to even be considered, much less awarded, the medal," she said in an interview with the Army Times. Being the first female soldier since World War II to receive the medal is significant to Hester, but she doesn't dwell on the fact. "It really doesn't have anything to do with being a female," she said. "It's about the duties I performed that day as a soldier." Hester, who has been in the National Guard since April 2001, said she didn't have time to be scared when the fight started, and she didn't realize the impact of what had happened until much later. "Your training kicks in and the soldier kicks in," she said. "It's your life or theirs. . You've got a job to do -- protecting yourself and your fellow comrades."


Were commandants in Kamchatka from the Army or the Navy? - History

Ships and Men of the Army Transport Service (ATS)

The Army Transport Service (ATS) was organized in late 1898 as an integral part of the Army Quartermaster Department. The concept for an Army operated fleet had its origins with the experiences of the military sealift during the Spanish-American War when U.S. flag commercial shipping was found in part unresponsive to the Army's needs.

During the early twentieth century, the Army operated a large transpacific sealift consisting of its own ships as well as a number of commercial bottoms partly of foreign registry which it time-chartered for support of American troops during the Philippine Insurrection and for the Relief of Peking. Following 1904, a somewhat skeletonized fleet remained in service until the entry of the United States into World War I.

Rapidly expanded, by early 1918 the Army was manning with its own crews in excess of fifty ships in support of the American Expeditionary Force in France. In July of 1918, beset by disciplinary problems with its employees, the War Department requested that the Navy's Overseas Transportation Service take over the Army operated fleet, but this had not been completely accomplished by the time of the Armistice.

Starting in early 1919, the Army began taking back its historic sealift function. With the severe reduction in military requirements which took place beginning in 1921, the fleet reverted to a small nucleus of mainly transports engaged in serving American holdings in the Pacific.

With the beginning of World War II, the fleet was again expanded. In 1942, the Army Transport Service was absorbed into the Army's Transportation Corps , becoming part of the Water Division, its civilian seamen employees being classified as members of the Water Division's "Civilian Branch."

At peak force during WWII, the Army's owned and bareboat chartered fleet have been enumerated as follows:

Self Propelled Vessels Over 1,000 gross tons and over 200 feet LOA:

35 large troop transports
16 cargo
55 inter-island
2 cable laying
1 news and communication
36 floating, self-propelled warehouse, repair, spare parts, and miscellaneous
23 hospital

With but few exceptions, the large tonnage ships were manned by civilian seamen of the Water Division. Of the large tonnage fleet, 31 vessels were lost to either enemy action or marine casualty .

Self propelled vessels less than 1000 gross tons and less than 200 feet LOA but which were over 65 feet in length:

510 freight supply
104 Y class tankers
746 tugs of various classes

[All of the above statistics are inclusive of both the Army Transport Service and the later Transportation Corps (Water Division)]

The small craft were in part manned by the Civilian Branch of the Water Division and in part by military crews. The military crews were Army and/or Coast Guard, the latter operating under Army control. Of the small tonnage fleet, 28 vessels were lost to either enemy action or marine casualty .

During WWII, the Army's civilian seamen labor force numbered at its peak strength approximately 15,000 men . Taken throughout the war, it has been estimated that around 20,000 civilians in the aggregate were employed by the Army aboard those vessels which saw service outside of the US continental limits. The Transportation Corps, Water Division (Civilian Branch) suffered a total of 529 men lost to enemy action or marine casualty .

During the early 1950s, the Navy's Military Sea Transport Service took over the Army's prior role in oceangoing shipping. The Army Transportation Corps still operates a substantial fleet of small craft, the crews of which are now all military.


Moral Waivers

If you need a waiver, that means you are ineligible to join the military. The waiver is the process of you asking the service to make an exception in your particular case. The recruiter is the first step. Only a military recruiter can initiate a moral waiver request. Keep in mind this is the recruiter's decision, not yours. There is no right to have a moral waiver processed. If the recruiter doesn't think there is a good chance of approval, he/she doesn't have to waste time by submitting one on your behalf.​ Finding a recruiter willing to work with you is typically the issue. Most people give up after the first NO response from a recruiter, but there have been many successful waivers passed because a recruiter was willing to work with a candidate who was mature, respectful, and persistent with a never give up attitude. These characteristics can go a long way to getting a recruiter to work on your behalf up the chain of command.

One primary consideration is the current recruiting needs of the service branch. If they are doing well meeting their recruiting numbers, the chances of waiver consideration/approval go down. If the service is struggling to meet their recruiting needs, the chances of waiver consideration/approval goes up.

The Army has the reputation of approving the most moral waivers. The Air Force and Coast Guard approve the fewest. The Navy and Marine Corps fall somewhere in between. However, that's not always the case. There have been times, during extremely good recruiting periods, where the Army won't consider any applicant who needs a moral waiver, at all.​ During times of downsizing of the military, not being at war, and when the civilian economy slow, the need of fewer recruits meets receiving more applications - this is the formula for fewer waivers getting approved. However, the opposite situation will improve the chances of waiver approval.

Another important factor is how attractive of an applicant you are to the service. Generally, those with high ASVAB AFQT scores and/or a high school diploma/college credits have a higher chance of favorable waiver consideration than a candidate who scores low on the ASVAB, and/or has a GED.

Other factors include the seriousness of the criminal offense(s), how old you were when it happened, and how much time has passed since then. There are some categories where I feel safe to say are virtually never considered for waivers:

  • Adult felonies. The services almost never (I'm tempted to say never) consider waivers for felony convictions that happened as an adult.
  • Juvenile felonies that involved violence.
  • Offenses involving the sale or transfer of illegal drugs.
  • Sex offenses.
  • Domestic violence that falls under the Lautenberg Amendment. The 1996 Lautenberg Amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968 makes it unlawful for anyone who has been convicted of a misdemeanor of domestic violence to possess firearms. If you can't carry a firearm, you're not worth very much to the military.

The waiver process is very subjective. More serious offenses require a higher level of approval in the recruiting chain-of-command than less serious offenses. However, regardless, a human being (usually a commanding officer) is going to make the final decision, and humans are usually more subjective than they are objective. For example, let's say your offense was burglary, and the final approval authority -- some colonel --had his house robbed. Do you think he's going to look kindly on a burglary waiver?


Were commandants in Kamchatka from the Army or the Navy? - History

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