Ring Cycle Premiers - History

Ring Cycle Premiers - History

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Richard Wagner's cycle of four operas, Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelungs) is first performed, at the first of the music festivals at Bayreuth, Germany. The four operas in the cycle are: Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold), Die Walkuere (The Valkyrie), Siegfried, and Goetterdaemmerung (The Twilight of the Gods).

Ring's General FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

The following FAQ answers many of the general questions about Ring products. Where applicable, the FAQ includes links to articles where you may find more information.

General Questions

How do Ring products work?
Ring products are based on a simple principle -- use your existing home wifi network to create a ring of security around your home. By hooking up to your wifi Ring products use the free Ring app (available for Apple and Android devices) to alert you whenever someone approaches your door or comes in a range of a security camera. You can then view an HD video stream of the person and speak to them using two-way audio communication. The free Ring app also allows you to control all the other functions of your Ring devices such as floodlights and sirens and video recording. Put simply, with Ring products, you're always home.

How large are Ring products?
Ring Video Doorbells come in a range of sizes ranging from the slightly larger original Ring Video Doorbell (which contains its own battery) to the sleek Elite (which is wired to an existing power supply). The following chart lists the dimensions of our product line:

Product Dimensions
Ring Video Doorbell 4.98 x 2.43 x 0.87 in. or 12.65 x 6.17 x 2.21 cm.
Ring Video Doorbell 2 5.05 x 2.50 x 1.08 in. or 12.83 x 6.35 x 2.74 cm.
Ring Video Doorbell 3 5.1 x 2.4 x 1.1 in. or 12.8 x 6.2 x 2.8 cm.
Ring Video Doorbell 3 Plus 5.1 x 2.4 x 1.1 in. or 12.8 x 6.2 x 2.8 cm.
Ring Video Doorbell 3 5.1 x 2.4 x 1.1 in. or 12.8 x 6.2 x 2.8 cm.
Ring Peephole Cam 1.85 x 3.83 x 0.78 in. or 47.0 mm x 97.3 mm x 29.5 mm
Ring Video Doorbell Pro 4.5 x1.85 x 0.80 in. or 11.43 x 4.7 x 2.03 cm.
Ring Video Doorbell Elite 4.7 x 2.75 x 0.43 in. or 11.96 x 6.94 x 1.10 cm.
Ring Stick Up Cam (available only in US.) 4.98 x 2.43 x.97 in.
Ring Spotlight Cam 4.96 x 2.72 x 2.99 in. or 12.6 x 6.91 x 7.59 cm.
Ring Floodlight Cam 4.5 x 2.7 x 2.7 in. or 12.5 x 6.9 x 6.9 cm.
Ring Chime 3.06 cx 2.44 x 0.98 or 77.8 x 62 x 25 mm).
Ring Chime Pro 4.06 cx 2.72 x 1.00 or 103 x 69 x 29 mm.

Does a Ring device require power wires to work?
It depends. Certain models of Ring Video Doorbells and mounted cameras come with internal batteries that will need to be recharged. All Ring products, however, come with equipment designed to hook the device up to your home's existing wiring. Consult the individual product's FAQ for a listing of the power options available for that device.

If the device uses a battery, how long does it take the battery to recharge?
Depending on the device, it should take between four and 10 hours for a battery to fully recharge.

Will I be notified when the battery in my Ring device is running low?
Yes. You will receive email reminders when your battery runs low. The Ring app also features a low-battery warning, as well as a battery level indicator that you can check at any time.

Are there any additional fees involved?
All Ring devices will operate without an additional fee or subscription. You will receive alerts when visitors press your doorbell or trigger motion sensors in your device. You will also get live streaming video and two-way audio. There is, however, a Ring Protect Plan available. Ring Protect will allow you to review share and save Ring videos. You can choose between Ring Protect Basic and Plus.

How can I get help with the setup and installation of my Ring device?
You're here now! The Ring Help Center at Support.ring.com has hundreds of articles available on all aspects of installing and operating your Ring devices. In addition, our Community Support Team is here to support you! Check the link below for the phone number and opening hours per country.

What happens if someone steals my device?
If your Ring device is stolen, please contact us with a police report and we will replace it. Terms & Conditions apply.

Do I need a wifi connection to set up my Ring device?
Yes. Ring devices require a wireless internet connection for operation. Ring devices are compatible with wireless routers running 802.11 B, G, or N, on 2.4 GHz and (for certain devices) 5.0 GHz.

Does my Ring device need to be attached to the computer during the setup process?
No. Ring devices are set up wirelessly by the Ring app on your smart device. You do not need to connect your Ring device to a computer during setup or operation.

Do I have to charge my internal battery prior to setting up and installing my Ring doorbell?
No. Although it is recommended that you charge your battery to 100%, most Ring devices with batteries arrive with a battery charge ranging from 50 to 70%.

Why do I need to connect my Ring device to my personal wifi network?
Among other functions, your Ring device uses your wifi network to send live HD video and audio to the Ring app on your smart device.


Can I mount a Ring device to other surfaces, such as glass?
Yes, for certain devices such as a Ring Video Doorbell. Most Ring devices, though, will need to be mounted on a sturdy surface such as wood, stucco, brick, or concrete,

What doorbell transformers are compatible with a Ring doorbell?
Ring doorbells may be connected to low voltage transformers that power home doorbell kits. You can connect a Ring doorbell in series with a transformer operating between 8V and 24V AC only (40V Maximum) at 50/60 Hz. Intercom systems and DC transformers are not compatible. Do not use a halogen or garden-lighting transformer.

What is a Ring Chime Pro and how will it improve my wireless internet connection to my Ring device?
A Ring Chime Pro is a stand-alone unit that extends the range of your wifi signal by repeating the signal over a greater distance. Once you connect your Chime Pro to your Ring device, simply position the extender somewhere near your Ring device to ensure the best possible signal.

Do I have to turn off the power in my house before installing a Ring device?
This will vary depending on your product, but as a general rule, yes, you should turn off the power any time you're working with wires.

Will I have to purchase anything at a hardware store in order to install my Ring device?
No. Everything you need to install your Ring device including tools, screws, and wires is included in the box when you purchase the product.


What version of iPhone, iPad, or Android will I need for the mobile version of the App?
Apple devices must be iOS 12 or newer. Android devices must be version 6.0 or newer.

Are Ring devices compatible with Blackberry devices?
No. Ring devices are not compatible with Blackberry devices.

Do Ring devices work with multiple users?
Yes. You are able to make subsidiary or shared accounts with other users that will allow them limited control over your Ring devices.

How many smart devices can I pair with each Ring device?
You can pair as many wifi enabled smartphones and tablets as you would like to a Ring Device.


Can Ring devices withstand the elements: extreme heat, cold, rain, and snow?
Yes. Ring products will work in freezing temperatures and are resistant to rain. In general, Ring doorbells and Cam products with batteries are rated for operating temperatures between -5 to 120 degrees F. (-20 to 50 degrees C.). Cam products without batteries are rated at -22 to 120 degrees F (-30 to 48.5 degrees C).

Does Ring support WPA2?
Yes. Ring devices support WPA2, WPA, and 64-bit WEP Hex. We recommend WPA2 for best results.

Do Ring devices use Bluetooth?
No. Ring devices operate through wifi, not Bluetooth.

What is the video quality put out by Ring devices?
Video quality varies depending on the device you choose. The original Ring Video Doorbell puts out the video at 720p HD. Later versions of the video doorbells and security cameras put out video at 1080p HD.

Do I need a static IP from my internet service provider?
A static IP is not required. Most of the connection process for Ring products is handled automatically through the Ring app.

Would I be able to assign a static IP to my Ring device?
Yes. You can assign a static IP address to a Ring device during the wifi setup process.

Can my Ring device run only on my internal wifi/LAN?
Ring products require internet connectivity to connect and send push notifications to your device. Connecting ensures that your Ring device can manage sessions and reach your smartphone or tablet whether you are at home or away.

Are Ring products FCC approved?
Yes. Ring products are FCC approved.


Will I be charged on order or when my Ring product ships?
You will be charged as soon as you place your order.

What kind of payment security do you have in place?
All credit card information is processed by Stripe, a third party company (https://stripe.com). Your connection with our servers and Stripe is made through HTTPS, the standard security protocol for handling sensitive information.

Is there a warranty on Ring products?
Yes. A limited warranty on parts and theft protection applies.

Will I receive an invoice for my Ring product?
After you place your order, we will send you a purchase confirmation email. You can log into your Ring account to view your order history and from there view a printable invoice.

Can I pay through PayPal?
Yes. We offer PayPal as a payment option on the checkout page to purchase Ring products only. If you would like to purchase both Ring products and a subscription plan together on the order, you will have to use a credit card. PayPal is not supported for recurring subscription billing.

Does Ring do door-to-door sales?

Shipping and Returns


Do you have to have the app open in order to receive notifications?
No. As long as you're not signed out of the app, your smartphone or tablet will receive the notification.

How do you know where your visitor is located if you have multiple Ring devices and/or multiple properties?
During the setup phase, you will be asked to give each Ring device a unique name. Notifications are delivered with the name of the device that triggered them, showing you exactly where the activity is occurring.

If I am on my smartphone without any wifi connection, will I still be able to see my visitors?
You don't need a wifi connection as long as you have internet connectivity and your particular carrier doesn't block video streaming (e.g. FaceTime). If your carrier enables video streaming and you have a good connection, you will be able to see real time HD video from your Ring device anywhere you have coverage.

Will all users associated with my Ring device be notified when there's a notification?
Yes. All users will be notified and will be able to interact with a visitor. However, users can also set their own custom notification settings. You may, for example, choose to be notified about all activity, including motion, while your partner may choose to be notified only when someone presses the button on your Ring doorbell.

Will my Ring device send me a push notification without internet connectivity?
You will receive a push notification when you are connected to a cellular network or wifi. If your phone is offline when activity is detected, you will see a missed call alert in your Recent Activity log within the Ring app.

Do Ring Products provide a live video feed?

Yes. All Ring devices are equipped with Live View, which allows users to stream live HD video and two-way talk. With Live View, you can always check in on your property 24/7.

Can I record and store the videos from the camera?
Yes. This, however, requires a subscription to our optional Ring Protect Plan. Once a member, all of your videos recorded by Ring devices are saved to your account for 60 days. You can also download the videos to a computer so you will never lose them.

Is there a way I can try out the Ring Protect Plan before I purchase it?
Yes. All Ring devices come with a free 30-day trial of the Basic Plan.

Do I need a wifi connection to set up my Ring device?
Yes. Ring devices require a wireless internet connection for operation. Ring devices are compatible with wireless routers running 802.11 B, G, or N, on 2.4 GHz.

Does my Ring device need to be attached to the computer during the setup process?
No. Ring devices are set up wirelessly by the Ring app on your smart device. You do not need to connect your Ring device to a computer during setup or operation.

Do I have to charge my internal battery prior to setting up and installing my Ring doorbell?
No. Although it is recommended that you charge your battery to 100%, most Ring devices with batteries arrive with a battery charge ranging from 50 to 70%.

Why do I need to connect my Ring device to my personal wifi network?
Among other functions, your Ring device uses your wifi network to send live HD video and audio to the Ring app on your smart device.


Can Ring devices capture clear video footage even at night?
Yes. See what's going on any time of the day or night thanks to infrared LEDs.

Does Ring have facial recognition technology in any of its services or devices?
No. Ring does not have facial recognition technology in any of its devices or services.

Share feature requests, get help, and discuss the latest in security with your fellow users on Ring's first neighbor-to-neighbor community forum.

Early Life

Wilhelm Richard Wagner was born on May 22, 1813, in Leipzig, Germany. Wagner&aposs parentage is uncertain: He is either the son of police actuary Friedrich Wagner, who died soon after Richard was born, or the son of the man he called his stepfather, the painter, actor and poet Ludwig Geyer (whom his mother married in August 1814).

As a young boy, Wagner attended school in Dresden, Germany. He did not show aptitude in music and, in fact, his teacher said he would "torture the piano in a most abominable fashion." But he was ambitious from a young age. When he was 11 years old, he wrote his first drama. By age 16, he was writing musical compositions. Young Wagner was so confident that some people considered him conceited.

The New York Times would later write in its obituary of the famous composer, "In the face of mortifying failures and discouragements, he apparently never lost confidence in himself."

The Exclusive Inside Story Of Ring: From 'Shark Tank' Reject To Amazon's Latest Acquisition

With crushing competition looming, Ring, the home security device company that has had a near-monopoly on the market for video doorbells, is selling itself to Amazon for a reported $1.1 billion. “I’m beyond happy,” said Ring founder Jamie Siminoff about the deal, “incredibly so.”

Siminoff declined to elaborate before the transaction officially closes. But Amazon is expected to treat Ring as it has similar acquisitions like Zappos and Audible, integrating some elements of Ring with other Amazon-owned products like its virtual digital assistant, Alexa, which already transmits commands to Ring’s products. The Seattle giant will mostly allow Ring to operate independently, according to a Ring spokesperson. Siminoff will stay on as CEO of Santa Monica-based Ring.

The deal will not make Siminoff, 41, a billionaire. Ring has burned through multiple financing rounds, bringing its investment capital to $209 million and diluting Siminoff’s ownership stake to 10%. The Amazon deal voids a $300 million venture round Siminoff was set to close in March, which would have valued the company at $1 billion.

The deal marks a handsome payday for Shaquille O’Neal, Ring’s pitchman, who struck an agreement in 2016 for an equity stake in the company in exchange for his appearances alongside Siminoff in Ring’s TV and online commercials.

As recently as last year, Ring had a 97% share of U.S. video doorbell sales, according to market research firm NPD Group. The devices let users see video broadcast through a tiny camera in the doorbell, using an app on their phone. But this year, a half-dozen copycat doorbells are hitting the market, some introduced by legacy security companies like ADT and others by brands owned by Google and Amazon. In December, Amazon bought Blink, a maker of wireless home security cameras, and was planning to introduce a $99 video doorbell in the coming months, undercutting Ring’s lowest-priced doorbell by $80.

Saliq Khan, an analyst at Imperial Capital who tracks 30 home security companies including ADT, said that Google-owned Nest posed a similar threat. Nest has expanded beyond its popular WiFi-connected thermostat to home security devices, including a $229 video doorbell it plans to release this year.

Ring has also been expanding beyond doorbells, with half its revenue coming from an array of motion-activated night-vision cameras equipped with video, speakers, LED lights and sirens, which helped drive Ring’s 2017 revenue to $415 million, more than double the $170 million it banked in 2016.

Just four years ago, Ring, then called DoorBot, was living on fumes. After a series of hit-and-miss ventures, Siminoff had retreated to his Pacific Palisades garage with a couple of buddies to try to invent a new product. Among his previous startups: Body Mint, a vitamin supplement containing chlorophyll that was designed to eliminate body odor but turned its customers’ stools green. His most successful company was SimulScribe, a voicemail-to-text transcription-software maker that struck a $17 million partnership with a company called DiTech in 2009. Though that deal netted Siminoff more than $1 million, it left him depressed. “Nothing I was doing was impacting the world in a meaningful way,” he said.

He got the idea for a cell phone-connected doorbell after his wife, Erin, complained that he couldn’t hear the doorbell. Despite concerns that people would consider his product a $200 toy, he drained his bank account, with encouragement from Erin, who works in film development at 20 th Century Fox, to produce a first shipment of 5,000 doorbells from a factory in Taiwan.

Then at a lunch one day in May 2013, he met an entrepreneur who told him he should try out for Shark Tank and gave him an email address for a producer who worked for the hit business pitch show. Siminoff immediately shot off a note and got a call from the producer as he was driving home. Four months later he taped his segment, and the show aired that November. Though the sharks turned down the deal he wanted, $700,000 for a 10% equity stake, the publicity saved the company. “We were a dead little crappy company in the garage,” said Siminoff. “Being on Shark Tank let us survive.”

Cutouts of Siminoff and Shaq at Ring headquarters.

The Shark Tank appearance drove more than $1 million in sales in just one month. But the publicity and the sales couldn’t make up for DoorBot’s poor picture quality, muffled sound and faulty WiFi connection. “Horrible product from a highly unethical company,” read one of 323 negative reviews on Amazon.

Siminoff responded by making house calls to 50 customers over the next nine months and answering every customer email. He still shares his personal email address on each box. Until six months ago, he made at least one visit a month to help customers fix bugs like poor WiFi connections. “I’m relentless,” he said.

Looking to improve the product, in March 2014, he struck a deal with Foxconn, the Chinese giant that manufactures iPhones, to collaborate on a redesign and extend a line of credit to cover the first 30,000 units at $100 apiece. Meantime, he was racing to raise capital. One of his investors, Hamet Watt of Upfront Ventures, suggested he rename the company Ring because it signified both a doorbell tone and a ring of security around a customer’s home. Siminoff paid $1 million to buy ring.com from a domain-name squatter. “If you want to be a player in the market,” he said, “you have to look like one.”

Next, he pushed to get into big box stores and started spending on TV ads. In a recent spot, Shaq joins Siminoff on camera to praise Vicki, an unassuming woman in a blue cardigan. The video from her Ring doorbell shows her chasing off a would-be intruder with the command, “Get the f*** out of here!”

In 2015, billionaire Richard Branson invested in Ring after a visitor to his private island spoke remotely with a delivery person back home. “Ring rang all the right bells for me,” said Branson. “Here was a product that was going to save your house from being burgled--I couldn’t believe the sharks turned Jamie down.”

Siminoff has proof that Ring wards off intruders. In 2016, in coordination with the Los Angeles Police Department, Ring gave away 40 doorbells in Wilshire Park, a middle-class L.A. neighborhood plagued by home burglaries. Though the devices covered only 10% of the area’s homes, burglaries fell by 55% within six months, according to the LAPD, mostly by discouraging robbers who strike when they believe no one is home. “Our mission is to reduce crime in neighborhoods,” said Siminoff.

The Amazon deal means that Ring will find a new Los Angeles location. At its Santa Monica headquarters it has crammed 250 of its 2,000 employees into four adjoining concrete one-story buildings that include a converted warehouse and a former art gallery (1,000 call center staffers work in three offices in Scottsdale and Phoenix, and Ring has offices in Buenos Aires, Taiwan, Europe and Australia). The Santa Monica space is so tight that Siminoff shares an office with an assistant and keeps his Mac perched atop a filing cabinet.

Over a series of interviews with Forbes starting in December, Siminoff gave no hint that he was looking to be acquired, predicting a Ring IPO within the year and vowing Ring could hold its own against Amazon and Google. “You can make the argument that these two behemoths will stomp you out,” he said. “But there are lots of examples where they haven’t won, like Dropbox, Roku, Netflix.” Ring won’t be joining that list of survivors.

The Met, the ‘Ring’ and the Rage Against the Machine

Peter Gelb has both raised expectations and invited criticism by calling Robert Lepage’s $16 million production of Wagner’s “Ring” cycle for the Metropolitan Opera revolutionary. He used the word again in a recent interview at his office, as he spoke of the “trials and tribulations” of executing Mr. Lepage’s “superhuman,” technically daunting concept in a repertory theater “against amazing odds.”

This backstage drama should not matter to the public, he added. But Mr. Gelb, the Met’s general manager since 2006, has been living it, attending every stage rehearsal and “complaining bitterly,” he said, about the persistent clankiness of the so-called machine, the 45-ton set of movable planks that dominate the production.

Now the real test has arrived. On Saturday night the Met begins the first of three complete “Ring” cycles. On Wednesday night there will be a preliminary presentation of “Das Rheingold,” the first of the cycle’s four component operas. But it is the glitch-prone machine that probably needs this warm-up “Rheingold” more than the cast and the orchestra.

Despite the technical problems and the stinging barbs the production has received from many critics, Mr. Gelb sees the Lepage “Ring” as emblematic of his mission to bring the latest theatrical thinking and technology to the Met.

“Over all for me, on balance, I think it’s a remarkable experience,” he said. Yet even he is a little worried: “I reserve final assessment until I see how it all works out technically, when presented complete in the space of a week.”

It was at Mr. Gelb’s invitation that I met him last month for an interview. In part he wanted to expound on his vision and offer a “bird’s-eye view of what we have planned for future seasons,” he said. Some of those plans look exciting, like a new production of Wagner’s “Tristan und Isolde,” scheduled for the fall of 2016, directed by Willy Decker, starring the soprano Nina Stemme and the tenor Gary Lehman, and conducted by Simon Rattle, who had a triumphant Met debut in Debussy’s “Pelléas et Mélisande” last season.

During the interview Mr. Gelb also rebutted backlash over some of the productions on his watch. Shortly before, Alex Ross had written of the “Ring” in The New Yorker: “Pound for pound, ton for ton, it is the most witless and wasteful production in modern operatic history.”


In principle it is hard to argue with what Mr. Gelb espouses. He believes in “taking risks,” he emphasized. And he said that with an average of seven new productions a season during his tenure, there is more happening than in “any period since World War II.”

More output does not mean that everything has been good, he acknowledged. But “it is absolutely essential,” he added, “to take pieces that are clearly dated, in terms of their production, and attempt to give them new life.”

Defining “dated” is the question. For all the talk of theatrical innovation, many productions during the Gelb years have been found wanting, not because they are outrageously modern but because they are essentially traditional takes spiffed up with contemporary trappings: the surprisingly timid and unfocused production of Mozart’s “Don Giovanni” this season, for example, by the hot British director Michael Grandage, in his company debut.

The most popular recent productions have actually been those in which directors went all out with bold concepts, like Patrice Chéreau’s dark and wrenching staging of Janacek’s “From the House of the Dead,” and the artist William Kentridge’s dazzling production of Shostakovich’s bleak comedy “The Nose,” which ingeniously employs puppets and videos, and which made the Met, during the run, a hotbed of the contemporary-art scene in New York. On Friday night Mr. Decker’s sleekly modern, surreal production of Verdi’s “Traviata” will return after its smash premiere last season.

Mr. Gelb has recruited several acclaimed directors who have mostly worked outside the realm of opera. And some of the results, he admitted, did not turn out as he had hoped: among them, John Doyle’s cluttered staging of Britten’s “Peter Grimes” in 2008.

But other such risks have paid off, he said. Phelim McDermott and Julian Crouch were both new to opera when, with the English National Opera, they created a transfixing production of Philip Glass’s “Satyagraha,” which was an audience favorite at its Met premiere in 2008 and equally successful on its return last fall.

The new “Ring” is both a point of pride and a sore point for Mr. Gelb. When pressed, he said that “revolutionary” was perhaps “not the right word” to describe it. For all its movable parts and often captivating videos, the production takes a straightforward, almost literal-minded approach to telling the story.

What is revolutionary about it, Mr. Gelb insisted, is that “Robert Lepage may be the first director to execute what Wagner actually wanted to see onstage.” Wagner’s libretto is filled with stage directions that were unrealistic for his day, including underwater episodes with the Rhinemaidens swirling about. But why do a bunch of undulating planks and female singers dangling from wires represent a closer execution of Wagner’s theatrical vision for this scene than more daring, playful or metaphorical realizations?

The Lepage “Ring,” Mr. Gelb asserted, is more popular than its critics allow, in part because of “this incredible feat that Robert pulled off, of offering a way to create a new character, which was the scenery.”

He could be right. But for many people, making the set a character is the problem. The machine imposes itself and distracts us from Wagner’s music drama.

By Mr. Gelb’s calculation, when his first decade as general manager ends in 2016 (“provided I’m not fired before then,” he added in what he later said was just gallows humor), the company will have presented 62 new productions and introduced 17 works to its repertory. This compares with 45 new productions and 12 Met premieres in the previous decade. Along with the increased productivity, clearly “a good thing,” he said, come “increased chances of success and disappointments.”

Mr. Gelb came across as fully in charge and confident in his priorities. To the suggestion I made in a column last year that the Met should appoint a director of productions, Mr. Gelb said: “I’m the director of productions. I hope you’ll accept that.”

Some of his plans look enticing. The director Deborah Warner will stage Tchaikovsky’s “Eugene Onegin,” with Mariusz Kwiecien in the title role, Anna Netrebko as Tatiana and Valery Gergiev conducting, to open the season in 2013.

Also that season, the Russian director Dmitri Tcherniakov will direct Borodin’s “Prince Igor,” working with the choreographer Alexei Ratmansky and the conductor Valery Gergiev. In 2015-16 Mr. Kentridge is scheduled for Berg’s “Lulu,” a production inspired by German Expressionist woodblock prints and starring the soprano Marlis Petersen.

Other projects involve the director and choreographer Susan Stroman, best known for “The Producers” on Broadway, who will take on Lehar’s “Merry Widow,” starring Renée Fleming. And it appears that Messiaen’s formidable masterpiece “St. François d’Assise” will finally have a New York production in 2017, with Mr. Lepage directing and Eric Owens in the title role.

Mr. Lepage will continue as a major player at the house. Next season he directs Thomas Adès’s exhilarating 2004 opera, “The Tempest.” Mr. Gelb spoke enthusiastically of Mr. Lepage’s concept: Prospero, the usurped Duke of Milan, creates a “sort of magical box where he could do his magical tricks.” The box will evoke the Teatro Alla Scala in Milan, seen from different perspectives.

So the next Lepage production at the Met will feature a box instead of a machine. “We’re workshopping it now, and I think it’s good,” Mr. Gelb said. “But you never know.”


Opera in English gains popularity in London

English composer Thomas Arne is best known for writing the patriotic song ‘Rule Britania’. This is a copy of the score from the song.

Handel abandoned Italian opera in 1741, turning instead to oratorio. For the next 40 years, the pasticcio reigned supreme at the King’s Theatre where Handel had enjoyed enormous success, using music by figures such as Pergolesi and Gluck.

Elsewhere in the capital, musical entertainments in English also proved very popular, following on from the success of Carey–Lampe’s The Dragon of Wantley (1737).

Successful new works (largely now forgotten) included Thomas Arne’s Artaxerxes (1762) Love in a Village (1762), a pasticcio with music arranged by Arne and Storace’s The Haunted Tower (1789) and The Siege of Belgrade (1791).

Ring Cycle Premiers - History

III. Expressing Symbolism in Music:
Wagnerian Opera and the Leitmotiv

"Richard Wagner was not a musical prodigy and as a youth he came rather circuitously to opera. He first aspired to be a poet. Then, finding that poetry was for him more effective as drama, his ambition veered to the theatre. Music became for him a further enhancement of poetry in drama. Thus it was that opera entered the scope of his over-mastering desire for self-expression in art. He began, not with the note, but with the word. So, throughout his career, he wrote his own texts. "

"(Wagner's) goal was a new type of stage work that should carry dramatic conviction through music. Out of the application of his theories arose. the new place of dominance in opera given to the orchestra. It was not a symphonic ensemble that existed for the creation of musical beauty in terms of form. It was not an accompaniment for a drama. It was the drama. "

"Through this fusing of dramatic movement and musical expansion (Wagner) achieved a continuity such as opera had never seen before. The music must not be at variance with the verbal idea the note, as far as might be, should be the equivalent of the word. In the older opera, dramatic and lyrical constituents had been separated. With Wagner they theoretically were one" ( The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians , 11th Edition, edited by Oscar Thompson Dodd, Mead & Co., NY, 1985 "Opera," 1551).

In his operas , Richard Wagner was able to achieve technical and stylistic fluidity through the use of the "leitmotiv" to illustrate and represent a variety of characters, symbolic objects and themes.

Leitmotiv [or Leitmotif(s)]: "A word coined by the Wagnerian scholar Hans von Wolzogen for a theme of easily recognizable melodic, rhythmic or harmonic identity, first used in connection with a certain character of incident, and which returns time and again, always with a reminiscence of the original association. These melodic fragments acquired symbolic meaning in the Wagnerian music-dramas and in addition were the chief elements of form used by the composer. Wagner was by no means the first to discover the efficacy of such means.
The Wagnerian Leitmotiv serves a structural purpose, however, that is distinct from the use of reminiscent themes in the scores of earlier opera composers. Extended symphonic passages are built up on them and they are combined, contrasted and superimposed, one on another, in a manner to suggest the development sections of symphonies" (Ibid,1231).
(Illustration from Ernst Kreowski's and Edward Fuchs' book of caricatures, Richard Wagner der Karikatur , ).

Leitmotifs offered Wagner a way to incorporate into music a range of solid but variable thesis arguments. In this way, the ideas at the base of the leitmotiv are what would be considered symbols in literature. Wagner's most complete usage of the leitmotiv is Der Ring des Nibelungen . This four opera cycle contains over sixty distinct leitmotiv used to represent everything from servitude to the magical ring itself.

Interested in hearing some of the leitmotifs of Wagner's Ring ? Click below to hear a few of these motifs. (All sounds played and recorded on an electronic piano by the creator of this site).

To learn more about Wagner's use of the symbols which are capitalized above, see Fire, Dragon, Gold, Ring, River, Sword, Wanderer in this site's Symbolism Glossary for Wagner's Ring . However, the themes and objects represented by these leitmotiv are not the only symbols Richard Wagner included in the Ring .

The Curse of Oak Island

Rick, Marty and the Oak Island team are back for the biggest season yet – bringing with them more determination, resources and technology than ever in their quest to solve the 224-year old treasure mystery. After seismic testing conducted at the end of last season revealed a possible sunken ship buried in the triangle-shaped swamp, the team will use sonic core drilling, strategic dives and finally a historic big dig to find out what could be buried below. Now fully partnered with fellow land owner, Tom Nolan, the son of the late, Fred Nolan, Rick, Marty and Craig Tester will have unprecedented access to areas of the island that they hope will yield answers… and treasure.

Even more extensive metal detecting will be used to search on the surface of the island while exhaustive archaeological digs will be conducted near the historic homestead foundations of Daniel McGinnis and Samuel Ball.

The cofferdam at Smith’s Cove will be expanded to allow the team to conduct an even more extensive investigation than last year, which uncovered numerous manmade structures dating more than two decades prior to the discovery of the Money Pit in 1795. The Oak Island team will not only find more of the ancient slipway, but be searching for the box drains and artifacts — like the 14th century lead cross found two years ago. They will also be drilling and digging above the beach in search of the so-called convergence point where the box drains are believed to merge into a single flood tunnel leading back to the original Money Pit.

In the Money Pit area, itself, they will conduct deep ground penetrating radar to look for the flood tunnel and using cutting edge survey tech and heavy digging machines, they will excavate early 19th century searcher shafts to help triangulate their way back to the location of the original Money Pit. This will lead to the biggest and most extensive digs that Rick, Marty, Craig Tester and the team have ever conducted in an effort to once and for all locate the fabled “Chappell Vault.”

After 224 years, the Oak Island mystery, now has the greatest chance ever to finally being solved.

Ring Cycle Premiers - History

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Der fliegende Holländer

New production Conductor:
Oksana Lyniv Director and stage design:
Dmitri Tcherniakov

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg

Philippe Jordan Stage design:
Rebecca Ringst Director:
Barrie Kosky


Axel Kober Stage design:
Rainer Sellmaier Director:
Tobias Kratzer

Die Walküre

Pietari Inkinen Action artist Hermann Nitsch: Photo: © Matthias Creutziger

Concert Parsifal

Christian Thielemann Photo: © Marco Borggreve

Watch the video: An Introduction to Richard Wagners The Ring Cycle part 1